Miscellaneous
Fact-checked

At WiseGEEK, we're committed to delivering accurate, trustworthy information. Our expert-authored content is rigorously fact-checked and sourced from credible authorities. Discover how we uphold the highest standards in providing you with reliable knowledge.

Learn more...

What is Tapirage?

Tapirage is the fascinating phenomenon where tapirs, with their distinctive snouts, create pathways through the forest, shaping the ecosystem. These gentle giants, often overlooked, play a crucial role in their habitats. Intrigued by how these creatures influence their world? Discover the unseen impact of tapirs on our environment and the stunning visuals that capture their essence. What secrets do these paths hold? Continue reading to uncover the story of tapirage.
Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

Tapirage is a technique which is used to change the natural colors of a bird. The technique emerged among South American Amerindians, who practiced it for centuries before the arrival of Europeans. Some curious Europeans also adopted tapirage, later using it to deceive consumers as to the true plumage of birds such as canaries. Museums with artifacts from Central American and the Caribbean sometimes have examples of tapirage on display, typically integrated into larger works like feathered tapestries and capes.

According to legend, tapirage is accomplished by first plucking the feathers of a bird, and then rubbing the bird's skin with secretions from toxic tree frogs. These secretions apparently have chemical compounds which can cause feathers to change color, so when the bird develops fresh plumage, it will be tinged yellow, orange, or red.

Tree frogs are involved in the legend of tapirage.
Tree frogs are involved in the legend of tapirage.

Certain birds certainly can change color in response to environment and diet, such as flamingos, who famously turn pink because of the krill they eat. It is not entirely unreasonable to suppose that Amerindians took note of this and decided to do a bit of experimentation to achieve desired colors of plumage for various craft projects, although how early experimenters landed on the idea of using toxic secretions from frogs is a bit of a mystery.

Pink flamingos get their distinctive coloring from the krill they consume.
Pink flamingos get their distinctive coloring from the krill they consume.

The process of tapirage has been described in several contemporary texts, and examples of unusually-hued feathers in museum collections testify to the fact that it was, in fact, an actual practice. In addition to being used to cultivate colored feathers for specific projects, tapirage was also apparently used to change the natural colors of birds so that they looked like entirely different (and more valuable) species. European canary breeders were sometimes accused of selling birds which had been subjected to tapirage to unwary consumers, for example.

After hearing about this elaborate process for changing the color of a bird, one would be led to wonder why Amerindians didn't simply dye feathers, since they certainly were aware of natural dyes. Tapirage may have ensured a truer, long-lasting dye which actually penetrated the whole feather, rather than coloring the outside. Colors like yellows and oranges can be challenging to achieve with natural dyes, as well, so tapirage may have been the most reliable dying technique. Or, perhaps Amerindians just got experimental.

Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a WiseGEEK researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Learn more...
Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a WiseGEEK researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

Learn more...

You might also Like

Discuss this Article

Post your comments
Login:
Forgot password?
Register:
    • Tree frogs are involved in the legend of tapirage.
      By: Sascha Burkard
      Tree frogs are involved in the legend of tapirage.
    • Pink flamingos get their distinctive coloring from the krill they consume.
      By: akulamatiau
      Pink flamingos get their distinctive coloring from the krill they consume.