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What Is the History of the Chalkboard?

Small squares of slate were widely used in public schools instead of paper during early 19th century America.
Due to the health risk posed by chalk dust, many chalkboards have been replaced with whiteboards in classrooms.
A chalk holder under a chalkboard.
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  • Originally Written By: S. Mithra
  • Revised By: C. Mitchell
  • Edited By: L. S. Wynn
  • Last Modified Date: 13 December 2014
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Chalkboards have had a role in education for centuries, and the large blackboards that most people easily recognize today have quite a storied history. The earliest examples were individual slate or slate-like boards that students used as a less expensive substitute for pen and paper. Most historical accounts say that the first mounted classroom chalkboard was pioneered in Scotland in the early 1800s, and soon spread to the United States and the rest of the world as slate became both more commonly mined and more readily available. Despite the ready presence of slate today, most modern chalkboards are made of composite materials that are easier to clean and maintain; many schools and businesses have also phased them out entirely in favor of cleaner “whiteboards,” which are usually made entirely of synthetics.

As a Paper Substitute

Some of the earliest chalkboards were little more than small squares of slate, usually framed with wood to keep them from breaking. Students were typically each assigned one if they didn’t own one themselves, and they used them to solve equations and compose short educational exercises. They could be marked on with other, lighter slate pencils, or chalk where it was available; the students could wipe their work clean with a cloth in order to use it over and over again.

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Slate was one of the most popular choices in the early 19th century because of how widely available it was in most parts of the world. The industrial revolution in Europe and the mining boom in North America uncovered stores of this material, which made it much more attainable than paper and ink or graphite. Slate is a dark, metamorphic rock that occurs in large stores beneath the earth in many parts of the world. Some students in the most elite schools used paper, but this was usually considered a luxury.

Slate in the United States

The boom in slate usage is perhaps most profound when looking at the history of the chalkboard in the United States. Slate mining coincided with the development of the American railway system. As such, much of the mineral that was mined out of Vermont, Maine, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Maryland, and New York could be efficiently transported via railroad to the thousands of prairie schools popping up across the frontier in the 1800s.

Changes in Classroom Efficiency

Student slate boards were effective, but not particularly efficient, particularly in disciplines that required precise equations — science and math, for instance. Teachers would usually have to individually transcribe the problems onto each individual slate, which took up a lot of time. All of this changed when teachers began mounting bigger boards onto classroom walls.

This leap forward is widely believed to have first happened in a geography classroom in Edinburgh, Scotland; that teacher, James Pillans, is said to have taken a rough piece of raw slate and mounted it himself up on the wall behind his desk. Once this innovation took hold, teachers could convey lessons and visual aids to entire classes, thus giving everyone the benefit of seeing the board. Students still used their individual slates, but only for solving — not for reading instructions. The first recorded use of a wall-mounted chalkboard in the United States occurred at the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, in 1801.

Substitutions and Modifications

Despite the widespread availability of slate, it was still too expensive for some of the poorer and more rural school districts. Teachers in these circumstances sometimes resorted to painting a plaster wall or wooden panel with dark paint to imitate slate, and black-painted grit sometimes also worked. An old rag served as eraser. Students sometimes came up with these sorts of crude substitutes for their own individual supplies, too.

Modernizations

The history of the chalkboard has also taken a few modern twists. Today’s scholars are more likely to find a chalkboard that is a steel sheet enameled with porcelain rather than true slate. Chalk, which is a limestone derivative, is the most common writing implement, and the rag erasers of earlier times have largely been replaced by blocks of felt that can erase chalk marks without creating as much airborne dust.

Whiteboard Alternatives

In the 1990s, concern over allergies and other potential health risks posed by chalk dust prompted the replacement of many blackboards with whiteboards. A whiteboard is a plastic board, sometimes also known as a “dry erase board,” on which people use special pens to make colored marks. These can be a cleaner, brighter alternatives to education and business interests.

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Discuss this Article

hangugeo112
Post 6

Chalkboard erasers tend to get dirty and need to be clapped in order to get the chalk residue out. I remember when I was in school, it was often my after school chore to go outside and do this. It would create noxious clouds of chalk dust which I would choke on. This is not good for the lungs.

Armas1313
Post 5

Whiteboards tend to be more interesting than chalkboards, they are easier to write on and easier to erase. They are also not as heavy and do not require as much work or material to make and assemble.

BioNerd
Post 4

The modern innovations which are slowly replacing the chalkboard allow for an immensely interactive environment which includes students and the internet. As the internet grows in application and function, education will be taken to another level.

anon81783
Post 3

Now in 2010 the "chalk board" or black boards can be replaced with projected computer displays, that still allow the teacher to draw and write immediate information on the board but also allow for movies, photos and computer animations to be put on the board. These modern systems require no chemical markers or dusty chalk.

They can store the information written on them for later retrieval or editing. They can be erased instantly, and completely cleanly because the "writing" is just light. Our children deserve the cleanest, clearest, best technology every day, because every day there is more material for them to learn.

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