Hepatosplenomegaly treatment options primarily depend on the underlying reason for the enlargement in the liver and spleen. To determine an appropriate course of action, a medical provider may request a series of tests including medical imaging studies, blood tests, and urine samples to find out what is causing the enlargement. This information can dictate whether treatments like medications, surgery, and other options would be most effective. Since in most cases the hepatosplenomegaly is a symptom, not a primary complaint, treating the root cause may resolve the issue.
One potential cause of liver and spleen enlargement is infection with bacteria, viruses, and other organisms. This can be common with people who have conditions like mononucleosis and hepatitis. Treatment of the infection may allow the swelling to resolve as the patient’s body returns to normal. Medications may be necessary along with rest, fluid support, and other measures to promote immune health.
Other reasons for hepatosplenomegaly to develop can be more complex and harder to treat. Patients with congestive heart failure may experience enlargement as their organs start to fail, which indicates their heart failure is no longer being adequately controlled. Aggressive treatments may be required. Another cause can be a tumor, in which case the patient may need surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation to address the growth and relieve stress on the liver and spleen.
Some cases of hepatosplenomegaly are related to genetic disorders. These patients may have enlargement even before they are born, or it may develop after birth. In these situations, treatment options can vary from supportive care for a patient with an incurable enzyme deficiency or other problem to medications designed to help the patient’s liver and spleen function. Working with an expert in the specific genetic condition involved can help patients access the best possible treatment, including potentially experimental treatments only open to participants in clinical trials.
When enlargement of the liver and spleen is initially identified, patients should be aware that extensive testing may be necessary to find out why it is happening. This information is important because it could dictate the best treatment pathway for the given case. Patients should also made sure their medical providers have a complete medical history, as it may contain important and relevant data. For example, a history of genetic diseases in the family would be important to know, even if a patient believes the gene was not passed down.