In most cases, the theory of cognitive development refers to a case study written by Jean Piaget in 1952, which he developed after years of study on the behavior and development of children. According to his theories, cognitive development involves the constant struggle to find balance, or equilibrium, between assimilation and accommodation. These two states of being refer to basing new information on past experiences and accommodating thoughts to obtain new and sometimes conflicting information.
According to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, humans undergo four main stages of growth. These are the infancy stage, toddler and preschool stage, elementary and early adolescence stage, and the teen and adulthood stage. The scientific names for these stages are the sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, and formal operational stages. Each one builds upon the other, and humans slowly develop more complex and symbolic thought processes as they get older.
Get startedWikibuy compensates us when you install Wikibuy using the links we provided.
There are several sub-stages or layers to each main stage in the theory of cognitive development. For instance, newborn infants have very little understanding of the world around them and do not recognize much of anything. As they learn, babies come to recognize caregivers, anticipate actions or events such as eating or sleeping, and develop object permanence, or the concept that a person or object does not cease to exist even when one cannot see it. By the end of the infancy stage, most babies can assign words to some objects verbally and understand many more when spoken by others.
The theory of cognitive development states that all humans go through all of the four stages, although some may move faster or slower than others. By adulthood, most people are capable of complex thoughts and emotions as well as of interpreting symbolism and irony. There are some exceptions to this rule, such as those with mental handicaps.
Although the theory of cognitive development states that all humans go through the same stages, how effectively this occurs depends on two factors. Genetic makeup plays a role in overall intelligence, and some believe that each person is born with a predetermined level of intelligence to be achieved. The home environment and how one is raised, nurtured, and encouraged also plays a role in how much intellect one may achieve. Researchers are still debating on whether genetic predisposition or environment is most important in terms of development, but most agree that a person’s overall intelligence is generally a combination of both.