Pitting edema is a medical condition in which fluid builds up in the extremities to such a degree that when the fluid-filled extremity is gently pushed with a finger, a depression will remain in the flesh for some time before the flesh slowly bounces back into place. This condition is a symptom of a number of medical conditions, some of which are very serious, and it requires medical treatment. If patients notice the signs of this type of edema, they should make an appointment with a doctor.
This condition is a form of edema, an umbrella for a family of conditions characterized by a buildup of fluid in the interstitial spaces of the extremities. The feet and legs are especially prone to edema, because the excess fluid has to work against gravity to get out of the extremities.
Edema is usually associated with salt retention, which causes the body to retain water to compensate for the excess salt, resulting in swelling in the interstitial spaces of the body because the water is held in the body, rather than being expressed in the urine. People can develop mild edema in hot weather, in working conditions where they need to stand all day, and in pregnancy, and edema can also be a consequence of a medical condition.
Liver, heart, and kidney disease can all cause edema, and if the condition progresses, pitting edema may emerge. This type of edema is also linked with pretibial myxedema, a symptom associated with hyperthyroidism, and with lymphedema. Lymphedema is common in cancer patients, and it can also be seen in the case of some parasitic and bacterial infections.
The emergence of pit edema is a problem for a number of reasons. It tends to make the patient feel uncomfortable, and it usually makes garments and shoes hard to wear. In addition, the buildup of fluid presents a risk of infection for the patient. The edema is also a sign that the patient has a serious underlying medical condition which needs to be addressed.
In order to treat this condition, it is necessary to determine the cause and to treat the patient for that. The patient may also be given diuretics to encourage the body to express water, and sometimes pressure garments are used to control the swelling and to encourage the fluid to travel up the body so that it can be expressed. However, these measures cannot be used alone to treat pitting edema, because they will not resolve the cause.