Nazi Germany began its military offensive to seize Moscow. (1941) "Operation Typhoon" was a 10-day surge in which the Nazi military attempted to take control of Moscow. The Russians were prepared, however — many fled ahead of time, burning everything before they left so there would be no provisions to support Nazi troops. "Operation Typhoon" was the beginning of the larger "Battle of Moscow," in which the Soviets prevented the Nazi's from capturing Moscow; it was the first time since the beginning of the war that the Nazi military was forced to retreat. The "Battle of Moscow" also was one of the deadliest battles of World War II — more than one million soldiers were killed.
A massacre of student protesters threatened the Olympic Games in Mexico. (1968) In what became known as the "Tlatelolco massacre," government army snipers opened fire on a peaceful student protest of the government occupation at the National Polytechnic Institute. Initially, the government tried to claim the students began shooting first, but this later was proved false. Hundreds of protesters, many of whom were women and children, were killed. The Olympics continued as planned, as the violence wasn't targeted at the games.
Nazi's suppressed the "Warsaw Uprising," killing 250,000 people. (1944) The "Warsaw Uprising" began August 1, as an attempt by the Polish resistance to take back control of Warsaw from Nazi occupation. In retaliation, more than 250,000 non-military Polish citizens were murdered by the Nazis.
US President Bill Clinton signed the Electronic Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) amendments. (1996) The amendments required government agencies to provide digital access to certain records by making them available electronically and providing areas, such as reading rooms, where citizens could gain digital access.
Rock Hudson became the first high-profile celebrity to die of AIDS. (1985) Hudson's death was one of the major influences that changed the public's perception of the disease as a "gay disease," bringing to light the epidemic nature of the illness.
US President Woodrow Wilson was paralyzed by a stroke. (1919) The stroke left him blind in one eye and paralyzed on the left side of his body. The stroke and his subsequent disability wasn't revealed until after he died in 1924. He continued serving as US President until 1921.
The world's first television was tested. (1925) Scottish inventor John Logie Baird invented the television and later the color tube that provided color television. On this day, he transmitted the world's first televised images using "Stooky Bill," his ventriloquist's dummy.
The first black US Supreme Court Justice was sworn into office. (1967) Thurgood Marshall was nominated by US President Lyndon B. Johnson and served on the court until his retirement in 1991.
The NFL played its first ever regular season game outside the US. (2005) The Arizona Cardinals beat the San Francisco 49ers 31 to 14. The game was held in Mexico City at the Estadio Azteca stadium, where the Mexico national football team plays. The game drew the largest crowd in NFL regular season history, with more than 103,000 fans attending. Other NFL games have been played abroad, but mainly International Series and bowl games.
The "Peanuts" comic strip was published for the first time. (1950) Charles Schultz wrote and illustrated the daily first-run strips that ran until one day after he died on February 12, 2000. The strip was published in 21 languages and 75 countries. Reruns continue to run in syndication.