Harvey Milk and San Francisco Mayor George Moscone were murdered. (1978) Milk, who was a city supervisor, and Moscone were killed by Dan White, who has previously served as a city supervisor but had resigned. White killed the pair in City Hall because he wanted Moscone to reappoint him as a supervisor; Moscone, influenced by Milk and other board members, ultimately refused to reappoint him. White was convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to five years in prison; after serving two years, he returned to San Francisco where he committed suicide. Milk was famous for being the first openly gay politician elected to office in California.
An atmosphere was detected on a planet outside the Solar System for the first time. (2001)NASA's Hubble Telescope discovered the atmosphere around Osiris, which is about 150 light years away from Earth. Evidence of water vapor also has been detected.
The first woman was elected as prime minister in New Zealand. (1999) Prime Minister Helen Clark served three terms in office from 1999 to 2008. In 2009, she became the United Nations Development Programme Administrator.
The "Battle of Washita River" between the US Army and the Indians occurred. (1868) In what also became known by some as the "Washita Massacre," Lt. Col. George Custer attacked a village of Cheyenne Indians where Chief Black Kettle was living. Over one hundred Indians, including Chief Black Kettle, were killed in battle. The attack inspired controversy because the Indians were peaceful, the village was already located on established reservation soil and the US Army's Fort Cobb commander had guaranteed the safety of the village.
"Penn" Station in New York City opened. (1910) Pennsylvania Station had opened on September 8 for the Long Island Rail Road, but trains from the Pennsylvania Railroad began service on this day. The trains provided service to Manhattan through tunnels established under the Hudson River for the first time. The famed station was demolished in 1963, which sparked the creation of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission, which has preserved thousands of historic buildings in New York City and across the country.
Alfred Nobel signed his will, establishing the foundation for the Nobel Prizes. (1895) Nobel willed his estate to establish prizes in Literature, Physiology or Medicine, Peace, Chemistry and Physics. The first prizes were awarded in 1901.
Macy's sponsored its first "Macy's Thanksgiving Parade" in New York City. (1924) The three-hour parade is held annually and is the second-oldest Thanksgiving parade along with Detroit's "America's Thanksgiving Parade," which began on the same day. The oldest Thanksgiving parade is Philadelphia's "6abc IKEA Thanksgiving Day Parade."
The first man-made object landed on Mars' surface. (1971) The Soviet Union's Mars 2 orbiter released it's descent module which was expected to land on the surface of Mars. Instead, it malfunctioned and crash landed on the planet, but was still the first object to successfully reach the planet.
The US Army War College was founded. (1901) The college is known for educating high-ranking members of the US military; many of the US lieutenant colonels and colonels were educated there. The student body also includes service members from other military branches and even from other countries.
Notorious US murderer and bank robber Baby Face Nelson was killed in a gun battle with the FBI. (1934) Known as the "Battle of Barrington," the shootout occurred in Barrington, Illinois. Two FBI officers also were killed. During his criminal career, Nelson, whose real name was Lester Joseph Gillis, killed more FBI agents than any other US citizen in history.