Fever and vomiting can be troublesome symptoms with a variety of potential causes, including gastroenteritis, influenza, and meningitis. Appendicitis, an injury to the brain, or gallbladder disease can also cause these symptoms.
Gastroenteritis is among the most common causes of fever and vomiting. This condition is caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, or parasites invading the digestive tract. As the body fights them off, it develops a fever; vomiting occurs as the stomach tries to eliminate the pathogen. In some cases, dairy allergies, environmental toxins, or the use of certain medications may cause gastroenteritis. Most patients can treat this condition at home by getting adequate amounts of rest and drinking plenty of fluids, although extreme dehydration may need to be treated in a hospital setting.
Influenza, or the flu, often causes a fever, and some people experience vomiting. This respiratory illness may cause additional symptoms such as coughing, muscle pain, or sneezing. Without treatment, influenza can lead to potentially fatal complications, especially in small children or the elderly. While there is no cure for influenza, medications can be prescribed to lessen the severity and duration of the symptoms.
Meningitis is a serious medical condition that causes the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord to swell. In addition to fever and vomiting, neck stiffness and a headache may be present. Hospitalization is almost always required so that the patient can receive aggressive medical treatment. The medications that are used during treatment depend on whether the underlying cause is bacterial or viral in nature.
Appendicitis and gallbladder disease are prone to causing a fever, moderate to severe abdominal pain, and vomiting. Surgical removal of the appendix or gallbladder is often necessary in order to avoid severe complications. If the appendix ruptures, infection can quickly spread throughout the body and cause permanent damage or even death. Infection can spread to surrounding tissues and organs from the gallbladder as well, so removal is the standard method of treatment.
Brain injury is yet another possible cause of fever and vomiting. Sports injuries, automobile accidents, or physical abuse are potential causes of injury to the brain. Depending on the extent of the injury, surgery, physical therapy, or more intensive life support measures may be required.