What are the Principles of Vata, Pitta, and Kapha?

KD Morgan

According to ayurveda, one of the oldest branches of the vedas, vata, pitta and kapha are formed from combinations of the five elements that make up our universe. For thousands of years, it has been understood by many that our bodies are composed of these same five elements that make up our external environment. When these elements combine in the human physiology, they create three governing principles, or doshas, which must be kept in proper balance in order to maintain good health.

An out of balance vata can cause various issues, such as insomnia.
An out of balance vata can cause various issues, such as insomnia.

Of these three primary doshas, vata governs them all. Air and space are combined to form vata. Fire and water govern pitta; and water and earth, kapha. The attributes of each dosha, along with the specific combination within each individual help determine the individual's physical, mental and emotional characteristics and tendencies.

It's important not to eat during nighttime pitta.
It's important not to eat during nighttime pitta.

Everything that moves, fluctuates or changes is governed by vata. Ayurveda explains that without air and space, life would be unable to progress, shift or take motion. As in the exterior world, vata dosha is responsible for all movement within the body. This involves all forms of motion in the mind and body such as circulation, elimination, peristalsis, respiration, nerve impulses and the thought process. Vata qualities include changeability, airy, cold, moving, quick, light, dry and rough.

Find out how you can save up to $257/month with these easy tools.

Pitta type people are articulate, intense, and orderly.
Pitta type people are articulate, intense, and orderly.

Vata type people are small boned, quick moving and speaking, with dry skin and small or irregular appetites. Out of balance vata can cause poor memory, worry or anxiety, insomnia, fatigue and weakness, arthritis, hypertension, constipation or rough, dry skin. In order to balance it in the physiology, the opposite qualities need to be introduced: getting plenty of rest, warmth in food and environment, heavier, oily foods with sweet, sour or salty tastes.

Too much kapha may cause depression.
Too much kapha may cause depression.

Pitta controls all forms of transformation and metabolism in the mind and body such as assimilation, digestion, metabolism, the immune system and processing sensory information. Pitta type people have medium builds, strong appetites, strong intellects and dislike hot weather. They are also articulate, intense and orderly with fiery personalities.

An overabundance of pitta can cause excessive body heat, anger, impatience, skin and eye problems, heartburn and ulcers. Pitta dosha is balanced by its opposite qualities: cool environment with cool, heavy, oily diet that is sweet, bitter or astringent.

Kapha qualities include cold, heavy, slow, soft, steady, oily, sticky and sweet. Kapha controls all forms of fluid balance and structure in the physiology such as water retention, mucus, physical strength, natural tissue resistance and proper body structure. People with predominantly kapha body types are large boned, strong with an even temper, affectionate and forgiving, methodical, earthy, and slow to forget.

Kapha types will show a dislike for cool, damp weather. Too much kapha may cause laziness, dullness, overweight, asthma, and depression. Kapha dosha is balanced by its opposite qualities: more exercise, less oversleeping, light, dry, hot foods with pungent, bitter or astringent tastes.

The north winds of winter are associated with the environmental vata. Vata season is between November and February when the cold, dry weather of winter aggravates our internal vata dosha. Pitta season is between July and October when heat is experienced as hot and combustive. Kapha is between March and June during the wet, heavy season.

Each seasonal change soothes and balances the effects of the previous season. Vata cools the accumulated heat from pitta season, kapha replenishes the moisture of drying vata season and pitta warms the cold wetness of kapha. At the end of each season, there will be an accumulated influence found in the body. Our bodies need an opportunity to balance any influences a particular dosha may have established.

The three primary doshas are also evident within the circadian cycle, all in local standard time.

Vata is dominant between

  • 2:00am and 6:00am
  • 2:00pm and 6:00pm

Pitta is dominant between

  • 10:00pm and 2:00am
  • 10:00am and 2:00pm.

Kapha is dominant between

  • 6:00pm and 10:00pm
  • 6:00am and 10:00am.

During the early morning hours between 2:00am and 6:00am, vata is moving the toxins and impurities out of the nervous system. Ayurveda also recommends the importance of rising prior to 6:00am so that we may maintain clarity and flexibility. If we sleep past vata time and into the following kapha time, we will be dull, lethargic and stiff. During the afternoon vata time between 2:00pm and 6:00pm, our clarity and intensity is at its highest. This is the best time for mental work or activity. If for any reason we are feeling sluggish or sleepy during this time, it is due to improperly digesting our noon meal. This makes it especially important to not submit to sleep.

During midday pitta time, 10:00am to 2:00pm, while the sun is at its highest, our digestion is at its hottest and most efficient. Our largest meal of the day should be eaten as close to noon as possible to ensure proper digestion. During the nighttime pitta, between 10:00pm and 2:00am, it is important to be resting as our digestion takes this time for its cleansing cycle. The heating qualities of pitta take this opportunity to cleanse our systems of any undigested food.

This is why our first impulse in the morning is to evacuate our bowel and bladder of waste. We blow our nose, cleanse our ears, eyes, mouth, and tongue of accumulated congestion, which is considered the residue from undigested food. It is especially important to not eat during nighttime pitta because without this cleansing opportunity, undigested food (ama) and toxins accumulate.

During kapha time, between 6:00pm and 10:00pm, we will begin to settle down and feel ready for sleep. It is important to go to bed before 10:00pm so kapha is still influencing our nervous system. If we wait until pitta influence begins to take hold, we will begin waking up and feeling hungry. Kapha time is the easiest time to fall asleep and the first couple hours of sleep will be more valuable if complimented by kapha.

According to the ayurvedic tradition, our routines should be in line with vata, pitta and kapha circadian and environmental cycles to ensure our bodies of proper functioning. Improper sequencing is the ultimate key to imbalance, which brings on disease. Along with establishing our routines, appropriate food will help keep each dosha in proper balance.

Because vata leads the other doshas, it should be our primary concern when addressing imbalances in the system. Often times by balancing our vata dosha, this will bring pitta and kapha back into balance. Ayurveda explains that these lifestyle adjustments will create harmony on all levels of the mind, body and spirit. By addressing the vata, pitta and kapha tridoshas, our lives will be enriched on every level.

The five elements that make up the universe are said to form vata, pitta and kapha in ayurveda.
The five elements that make up the universe are said to form vata, pitta and kapha in ayurveda.

You might also Like

Discussion Comments


@anamur-- Yes, it's possible. I've been to an Ayurveda center for treatment. There they gave us an introduction about the three dosha types. Dosha means imbalance or body type. Most people have only one dominant dosha, either pitta, vata or kapha. But it can be the case that two, even three are dominant equally.

I recommend seeing an Ayurvedic doctor. They do physical examinations and tests to determine your dosha type or types and recommend treatments and lifestyle changes accordingly. Otherwise, you might be confused about with dosha is dominant.


Is it possible to have two or more elements out of balance in one person?

Just like Kapha, I don't like cool weather, I feel cold most of the time. I love being in warm places. But I also have dry skin and I experience a lot of anxiety like Vata.

Does this mean that both are out of balance with me?


I was introduced to the concept of vata, pitta and kapha in a book about eating and lifestyle habits. There was a list of questions in this book about what I ate, my health and exercise habits and so forth. The answers determined which of these three elements I was experiencing the most.

I was going through a time where I had a lot of stomach acidity and acid reflux disease. The results showed that I was a pitta and characteristics suited me perfectly. I followed the recommended diet type for pitta in the book which helped my acidity a lot.

I don't know if I'm still a pitta now, as my stomach has healed and I know that we can change among the three elements at different times.

Post your comments
Forgot password?