What Are the Effects of Theobromine?

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  • Written By: Melissa Barrett
  • Edited By: PJP Schroeder
  • Last Modified Date: 08 September 2019
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Theobromine, a chemical in the methyloxantine family of alkaloids, occurs naturally in raw and processed chocolate. These chemicals have been found to dilate blood vessels, allowing increased blood flow. In addition, this group of chemicals increase urine output by stimulating kidney activity. Like most chemicals, however, there are risks to consuming methyloxanthines in high doses.

The discovery of the benefits of this chemical is not recent. Before the development of more effective medications, vascular conditions, such as hardening of the arteries and insufficient blood flow to the heart, were treated with the chemical. Other conditions that are caused by constriction of blood vessels, such as asthma and migraine headache, were also treated with methyloxanthines. The resurgence of the chemical's popularity is largely due to the development of concentrated theobromine in capsule and tablet form.

Besides traditional usages, theobromine has recently been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and reduce blood pressure. Letters published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition indicated that these results were noticeable in five of seven healthy subjects. Further studies may ascertain the effects of methyloxanthines on patients with preexisting insulin resistance and hypertension.


Negatively, there is some evidence that consumption by pregnant women may have significant adverse effects on the development of the fetus. Specifically, a study by the National Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in Poland found that laboratory animals that ingested large amounts of theobromine and other methyloxanthines showed impaired development of new blood vessels. In addition, the arms and legs of the offspring were stunted in size, and the animals showed several irregularities in immune system function.

In addition, theobromine is the chemical that makes chocolate potentially fatal to dogs who are unable to break down the chemical in the liver. This condition, although much rarer, can also occur in predisposed humans. In general, the levels of the methylxanthines in even high quality chocolates are unlikely to cause poisoning in people. Unfortunately, however, supplements containing 20 to 30 times the amount of these chemicals are now commercially available. At these levels, even healthy individuals risk a reaction.

The source of theobromine also determines its overall benefit to an individual’s health. The high levels of fat and refined sugar in milk chocolate likely overshadow any benefit that the chemical may have on insulin levels and blood pressure. Dark chocolate, however, often contains higher levels of the chemical and lower levels of sugars. In that case, the benefits may balance just enough to allow guilt-free snacking.


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Post 2

@golf07 - This article also explains why they always say that dogs can't have chocolate. My dog really put this to the test though.

She was somehow able to reach some miniature candy bars that were left out on the coffee table. She devoured every one of them, wrappers and all.

She is a big dog, weighing around 75 pounds, and the vet said she would be OK. I had a friend who was not so lucky. She had a Yorkie who got in to some chocolate and ended up not making it.

He was very old and had some other problems, but I think the chocolate is what set him over the edge. The theobromine toxicity was too much for his little body to handle.

Post 1

I have recently heard on health shows and read in magazines that dark chocolate can actually be beneficial for you.

This article really helps explain the science behind this and makes a lot of sense to me. Although I never thought of health and chocolate in the same sentence before, it seems like there really are legitimate benefits to dark chocolate.

It did take me awhile to get used to eating dark chocolate. I used to always think it was too bitter, and preferred the milk chocolate.

Now that I have cut most sugar from my diet, I find that the dark chocolate is what I crave. It is nice to know that this can even be good for me, in moderation of course.

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