Adenitis is a condition characterized by a swollen gland or lymph node. The inflammation may be caused by outside factors like bacteria or it may be indicative of an underlying condition such as cancer. Cases that impact the lymph nodes are generally known as lymphadenitis, and this classification contains the subtypes mesenteric and cervical. Various glands in the body can also inflame or swell, resulting in a number of separate conditions, including the following: sebaceous adenitis, vestibular adenitis, dacryoadenitis, and sialadenitis.
Lymphadenitis is one form of lymphadenopathy, or disease of the lymph nodes. This condition in particular causes the lymph nodes to enlarge and become tender. It may result from a bacterial infection, an immunological disease, or a tumor. If the inflammation occurs in the neck’s lymph nodes, the ailment is called cervical adenitis. In contrast, swelling of lymph nodes found in the abdomen — typically around the appendix — is known as mesenteric adenitis.
Symptoms for lymph node-related swelling may vary depending on the cause and location. In many cases — particularly in the neck — noticeable lumps can be seen and felt underneath the skin. Pain, sensitivity, and warmth may surround the afflicted area as well. Abdominal inflammations can cause diarrhea and vomiting. Cases caused by tumors may include cancer-related symptoms like nausea, fatigue, and weight loss.
Two conditions can negatively influence glands located in the skin, and they may be facilitated by genetic factors or infection. Oil-producing glands that prevent skin dryness become enlarged when an individual is afflicted with sebaceous adenitis. Further, the bacterial-generated condition tuberculosis can target glands located in the skin of the neck. Skin-related adenitis may be detectable by blockage of pores, leading to irritated skin sores. Chills and fever may also occur in some cases.
In addition, inflammation can occur around the genitals or the face area. Lymph nodes in the groin can become inflamed, for example, as can vestibular glands located within female genitalia. The latter condition is characterized by painful small ulcers and burning sensitivity, and it may be a consequence of a sexually transmitted disease. As for face-related gland swelling, the saliva-producing glands in the mouth can inflame and cause sialadenitis, whereas the tear-producing lacrimal glands result in dacryoadenitis.
Treatments usually depend on the nature and progression of the condition. For infectious forms, antibiotics may best alleviate symptoms. Conditions caused by a malignancy, on the other hand, would likely benefit from traditional cancer treatments like chemotherapy. Chronic and advanced inflammation may necessitate the removal of lymph nodes or glands.