There are many types of eye injuries, such as a detached retina, which may be caused by an orbital bone fracture. This type of eye trauma often causes swelling and bleeding of the eye. Most eye injuries, such as a scratched cornea, will require medical treatment by an ophthalmologist. Often called a corneal abrasion, this may be caused by foreign bodies in the eye, such as specs of dirt or other particles. Industrial accidents resulting in chemical burns of the eye are a common type of eye trauma.
Orbital blowout fractures occur from blunt force trauma to the bones of the eye socket. This type of fracture may cause fragments of bone to penetrate the eye socket and damage eye tissue or muscles. This can result in vision problems and dizziness. Permanent vision loss may also occur if not treated by an eye doctor.
Sports-related eye injuries are commonly seen in professional athletes or in children and teenagers who participate in contact sports. When someone is hit in the eye, either by an object such as a baseball, or by impact of a crash, hemorrhaging of the eye may occur. These types of eye injuries are known as hyphemas. When blood accumulates inside the eyeball, it is considered a medical emergency, as the increased pressure this causes may lead to vision problems.
A type of eye injuries common in young children is a laceration of the eyelid. These small tears or cuts on the eyelid may be caused from a fall or from becoming cut with a sharp object. Any type of piercing to the eyelid should be seen by an ophthalmologist to rule out any possibility of damage to the interior of the eye.
Retinal detachment is a type of eye trauma that may lead to permanent vision loss. This condition causes eye tissue that normally supports the retina to exfoliate or strip away. Many patients who experience symptoms of retinal detachment will notice floaters and spots in front of their eyes. A detached retina may be caused by disease or injury and often does not produce pain.
Another type of injury to the eye is a burn caused by direct exposure to the sun's ultraviolet rays. Looking at the sun through a telescope without a special filter may cause irreversible damage to the eyes or permanent blindness. Certain types of industrial accidents, such as exposure to the bright light of a welding torch, may lead to eye damage as well.