What Was the Renaissance?

Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

The Renaissance was a period in European history marked by a cultural flowering. Numerous conditions combined to spark the Renaissance, and this period in history was marked by huge changes for people living in Europe. Historians continue to unravel the history of this time period centuries later, and many people appreciate the distinctive arts, intellectual achievements, and scientific advances which marked it. The term is also used generically to talk about a sudden explosion in the arts and culture.

The Mona Lisa was painted during the Renaissance period.
The Mona Lisa was painted during the Renaissance period.

It is believed that the Renaissance arose in 14th century Italy, as Europe was slowly emerging from the Middle Ages. Different historians have unique takes on what, exactly, brought about the Renaissance, but they generally agree that it was a revival of Classical learning and the arts. Some have suggested that the proliferation of the Black Death brought about a greater interest in life on Earth, as people were reminded of their mortality.

The Roman Catholic Church, which is seated in Vatican City, sponsored many of the most famous artworks from the Renaissance.
The Roman Catholic Church, which is seated in Vatican City, sponsored many of the most famous artworks from the Renaissance.

Culturally, Europe made so many significant advances during the Renaissance that it would be impossible to describe them in this brief article. The advent of printing brought about a much greater breadth of knowledge for citizens, while Europeans began to value education and vigorous scientific training. Numerous scientists, artists, philosophers, poets, and writers flourished during this period, including William Shakespeare, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Niccolo Machiavelli, Sandro Botticelli, Erasmus, Martin Luther, Copernicus, Galileo, and Thomas More, among many others.

William Shakespeare flourished during the Renaissance.
William Shakespeare flourished during the Renaissance.

The revival of Classical learning and values brought many Ancient Greek and Latin texts to light, with translation making them more accessible to all. The arts flourished during the Renaissance, with an established system of patrons and artists becoming much more widespread. New techniques in painting, music, poetry, and theater were developed while scientists pondered the nature of the heavens and put forth theories on the basic workings of the world.

St. Peter's Basilica is an example of the architecture of the Renaissance.
St. Peter's Basilica is an example of the architecture of the Renaissance.

European society also changed dramatically, with the Renaissance reforming attitudes about government, rights, religion, and wealth. Numerous monarchs were forced to adjust to changing world conditions even as they encouraged their nations to explore and innovate. The period was marked by many national “Golden Ages” as countries sent ships to all corners of the world to learn about new places, people, and things.

Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel during the Renaissance.
Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel during the Renaissance.

The Renaissance was followed by the Reformation, a radical period in European history which began around the 16th century. During the Reformation, the Christian Church experienced devastating splits, with many theologians repudiating Roman authority over faith and religious matters. The Reformation also laid the groundwork for social revolutions and struggles for independence through Europe and in various colonies around the world.

Michelangelo's David is an icon of the Renaissance.
Michelangelo's David is an icon of the Renaissance.
Galileo lived during the Renaissance, contributing greatly to the field of astronomy.
Galileo lived during the Renaissance, contributing greatly to the field of astronomy.
Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a wiseGEEK researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

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Discussion Comments

anon250214

Thanks a lot. I needed some info on the basics of the renaissance, like an introduction for my project in school. Great article, not too long and great detail.

anon118299

Does this cover debate and diplomacy? I have to write a paper about The Renaissance in England, but I'm not quite sure if this fully covers debate and diplomacy. Or the consequences and failures. But this is an amazing website, I hardly knew a thing about The Renaissance, and now I could make a quick speech about it, off the top of my head. Thanks for the info!

anon111076

Bless this site. It is so helpful and easy to understand!

anon79383

This is great.

anon79139

what is the name of the author?

anon75729

Great info, not boring and dull like some sites sometimes are. Also found out about Thomas More and Galileo. Nice facts.

anon63712

Thanks for this info really helped on the project. it's faster for me to read it than other articles.

anon60315

thanks for the info. this is definitely easier than reading like 2-3 pages or whatever.as someone said earlier great info for a quick paper. thanks!

anon53922

you should add more information because there is a lot more to the renaissance than just that.

anon47082

It's good but doesn't tell me what it was.

anon46529

thanks for the great info!

anon45376

This makes me feel very good about history.

anon21301

What a perfect 'code name' for our new First Lady!

anon19141

this is great!! definitely will refer to my friends!

anon9093

great info for a quick paper, thanks!

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