Vellum is a type of paper-like writing surface that has been used for centuries in various forms. Ancient vellum was made from the skin of mammals such as calves or goats. Modern forms are made from wood pulp cotton fibers that have been treated. It generally is more durable than paper and is most often used for special documents or other manuscripts that are meant to be preserved.
Preparation in Ancient Times
Originally, "vellum" referred to a translucent white writing surface made by the Hebrews before 1000 BC. It was prepared from untanned calfskin by drying it under tension after it was cleaned, de-haired and scraped. After it was stretched, it was polished with pumice, which is an abrasive, and talc, which is a filler, as a final preparation for writing. In the Middle Ages, illuminated manuscripts were prepared on vellum, as were other documents.
Later, vellum was prepared from the skins of stillborn animals. Sometimes, goatskin or sheepskin was used to make parchment referred to by this name. The names "parchment" and "vellum" are sometimes used interchangeably. Besides being used for writing, it has been used to make drumheads and lampshades.
In the late 19th century, a paper product with properties similar to vellum was created by treating and embossing wood pulp and/or cotton fiber. This paper is thick, ivory-colored and semi-translucent with a low gloss. It also might be called vellum paper, imitation vellum, vegetable vellum, or Japanese vellum.
Modern vellum paper is available in a variety of colors for documents, diplomas and projects such as making cards, announcements or programs; tracing; and scrapbooking. This paper comes in white and cream varieties as well as pastels, bright colors and pinstripes. Marbled paper is another option, and metallic and speckled designs also can be found. Embossed variations can also be purchased, and the embossing is often gold.
Traditional vellum and parchment are still used for drumheads. Calfskin and goatskin are both sold for replacement drumheads for ethnic hand drums and come in a variety of diameters to provide a good fit. These materials also are still used for lampshades. Before imitation material or parchment is used for a lampshade, one should check to be sure that it can handle the heat that will be generated by the lamp.