What Is Vaginal Epithelium?

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  • Written By: Alan Rankin
  • Edited By: Melissa Wiley
  • Last Modified Date: 12 August 2019
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The vaginal epithelium is the tissue lining the inside of the vagina in humans and other animals. Like most other tissue, it has specialized structures and functions. Although not precisely the same as skin, it shares many characteristics with skin and connects with the skin at the entrance to the vagina. This lining is composed of cells with a unique structure. Doctors specializing in the female reproductive system can examine these cells for evidence of disease or infection that can affect the overall reproductive tract.

Epithelium is a kind of tissue found throughout the body, both internally and externally. Epidermis, or skin, is one kind of epithelium. Other kinds form the linings of blood vessels, intestines, and various other organs and orifices. Vaginal epithelium extends the length of the vagina, from its opening at the vulva to the cervix, where it is replaced by cervical and ovarian epithelium. These forms of epithelium have their own structure and functions, distinct from that of the vagina.


Vaginal epithelium is specially constructed to allow the unique functions of the vagina and the reproductive system to occur. It is composed of many layers of cells so that injury does not result if the outermost layers are removed by friction, for example during intercourse or menstruation. Unlike external skin cells, these cells allow for the passage of moisture, enabling the natural lubrication that occurs during intercourse and sexual stimulation. These cells, combined with the unique muscular structure of the vagina, also allow the organ to expand in size, as required during sexual intercourse or childbirth.

Doctors specializing in the female reproductive system, called gynecologists, are required to familiarize themselves with the normal appearance of vaginal epithelium and its cells. Abnormalities in these cells can indicate diseases such as cancers. A procedure called a Pap test, or Pap smear, collects a sample of these cells for close examination. This can reveal health conditions that may lead to cervical cancer. This is an extremely dangerous disease, and consequently adult women are advised to undergo the Pap smear on a regular basis as part of their overall reproductive health regimen.

A multitude of other diseases can also be indicated by irregularities in the vaginal epithelium. Women who suspect such irregularities should consult a specialist in gynecological medicine. It should also be noted that not all vaginas contain this form of epithelium. Women with artificial vaginas, resulting from sexual reassignment surgery, will not have vaginal epithelium. These vaginas are usually constructed with tissue from elsewhere in the patient’s body during the reassignment process and will not be lined with the specialized vaginal cells of those born biologically female.


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Post 4

A post-op transwoman can definitely have normal vaginal epithelium, depending on the technique used. For example, split thickness skin grafts are known to facilitate this in transsexual women, intersexed persons and normal women with no vagina.

Here is an example of how split skin grafts can undergo metaplasia

due to the local environment and become normal vaginal mucosa.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2005 Jul 1;121(1):110-6.

Treatment of vaginal agenesis with modified Abbé-McIndoe technique: long-term follow-up in 22 patients.

Keser A1, Bozkurt N, Taner OF, Sensöz O.

Post 3
I will just file this away under the miscellaneous information section. Sometimes it's better to just know without talking about it.
Post 2
Interesting indeed! While I have no intention of becoming a gynecologist, I do intend on storing this information for future reference.
Post 1
Now this is interesting because I had always been under the impression that the skin in this region was the same as anywhere else regarding the mucus membranes. It's really amazing that there's a different type of skin that is not the same as say, the skin that lines the nose or lines the inside of the mouth. It makes me wonder if what lines the inner ear or behind the eyelids are the same as this type. There are fluids or at least moisture in those regions, so I would assume that they're similar in some ways.

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