In Christianity, the True Cross is the cross upon which Christ was crucified. Since this cross holds such a special place in Christian theology, it is considered an object of veneration and awe. Although the True Cross is no longer intact, many churches claim to have remnants of it, which they keep in reliquaries, along with other sacred objects. It is also possible to purchase an alleged piece of the True Cross, for a hefty price.
According to the mythology surrounding the True Cross, it was found in 300 CE by the Empress Helena. She visited the site where the crucifixion took place, and found the cross of Christ, along with the crosses used to hang the two thieves next to him. The True Cross revealed itself by curing a very ill woman, and the legend of the True Cross was born.
Supposedly, the Empress Helena took the nails from the True Cross, sending them to her son, the Emperor of Rome. The cross itself appears to have changed hands several times, until it was broken up in the 600s when part of the cross was taken as a trophy. Devout Christians hid the rest, producing it again during a successful Crusade so that it could be taken to safety. By 1200, the large pieces of the True Cross disappeared completely, with fragments appearing all over Europe.
Many people have suggested that the fragments of the True Cross found in most churches are probably frauds. Several of these fragments have matched each other when analyzed under microscope, but these matches do not necessarily imply that these pieces come from the True Cross. During the period after the Crusades, numerous religious relics were brought into Europe from the Middle East, and many of them were probably of questionable provenance.
Churches which have a piece of the True Cross tend to guard it very carefully, whether or not the fragment's origins can be proved. Catholic and Orthodox churches are most likely to have such fragments, since these branches of Christianity are well known for their relics and sacred objects. Visitors to these churches may be able to see the relics behind glass, and they are sometimes also carried on parade for major holidays. In some cases, visitors can actually touch the relic or the reliquary, in the belief that the True Cross has potentially healing powers, or that it may bring about a spiritual experience.