The treatment for testicular cysts normally depends on the type of cyst. Some doctors advise leaving cysts alone that do not look suspicious to see if they go away on their own. Doctors occasionally use needles to pull fluid out of problematic cysts that are harmless but don't seem to become smaller over time. These cysts might also be surgically removed. There are some cancerous and pre-cancerous cysts that form on the testicles, and these are usually removed surgically as well. Even though many testicular cysts turn out to be harmless, men who find them should always see their doctors just to be on the safe side.
As soon as a cyst on the testicles is discovered, a doctor's visit and ultrasound will likely be necessary. The ultrasound should help a doctor determine the nature of the cyst, which may help him decide what type of treatment to pursue. Cysts on the testicles are often spermatoceles, which occur when sperm gets trapped inside a small fluid-filled sac just beneath the skin. Spermatoceles usually do not require treatment, and doctors often advise their patients to use the wait-and-see approach with this type of cyst. If the cyst does not become smaller or disappear over time, a patient may have to go back to see his doctor and have the cyst either drained or surgically removed.
Even though spermatoceles are usually not painful cysts, other types of testicular cysts are. If a cyst on the testicles is causing a man extreme pain, his doctor will probably go ahead and remove it surgically so that his patient can get some relief. Removing a cyst on the testicles is typically an outpatient procedure, meaning that a man usually does not have to stay overnight in the hospital. The procedure may be done inside the doctor's office with a local anesthetic. Recovery should be mostly complete within two weeks, at which point it may be necessary to return to the doctor's office for a follow-up visit.
Cysts on the testicles that are cancerous or pre-cancerous almost always have to be removed surgically. In addition to surgical removal, radiation or chemotherapy might also be necessary depending on how advanced the cancer is or if it has spread to other parts of the body. Doctors usually have to perform biopsies on testicular cysts to determine whether they are cancerous, but biopsies are typically not ordered unless the initial ultrasounds show results indicating the presence of cancerous masses. Most testicular cysts are not cancerous, but all cysts should be checked out by a doctor, regardless.