The motor system is one division of the central nervous system, which is the body’s control system. the motor system specifically is responsible for voluntary and involuntary movement. It consists of two sub systems: the pyramidal and extrapyramidal. The pyramidal system is responsible for voluntary movements, while the extrapyramidal system controls involuntary movements.
The primary motor cortex is a part of the brain that is located near the back of the frontal lobe. It is important to the motor system because it helps to coordinate movements. The primary motor cortex is connected to the spinal cord by motoneurons called Betz cells. Being connected to the spinal cord enables it to then send signals to muscles.
Human movements are guided by senses. In many cases, before a movement happens, something must happen outside the body to signal it. This is how nerves are essential to the motor system. They help the body sense the outside world, which then determines appropriate movements.
Motor skills are an important aspect of the motor system. They continue developing throughout a person's lifespan. When babies are born, they have little control over their movements, but as they age and the motor system develops, they begin to master the two different types of motor skills, gross and fine.
Gross motor skills are those that use large muscles. Examples of gross motor skills include walking, running, and balancing. These skills are developed in later childhood. Fine motor skills use smaller muscle groups. These include activities such as texting on a phone or playing the guitar.
The different parts of the motor system are interconnected. Fine and gross motor skills are an example of this connection. Before mastering fine motor skills, gross motor skills must be developed. For example, before a child can swing a baseball bat, he must be able to stand upright and balance himself.
Motor dysfunction occurs when there is a malfunction in some part of the motor system. This can include damage to the brain, spinal cord, nerves, or muscles. Damage can occur as a result of trauma or genetics. Cerebral palsy is an example of a condition that causes motor dysfunction. Individuals with cerebral palsy cannot control their body movements because of damage to the brain due to trauma or genetic abnormalities. Another of the genetic contributors to motor dysfunction is Down syndrome, which causes decreased muscle tone and, therefore, a decreased ability to control the body.