Pathophysiology deals with the changes or processes that occur in the human body in response to the presence of disease or injury. Fever is the elevation of the body's temperature above the normal level. Fever pathophysiology, therefore, is the rise in the body's temperature due to the changes caused by a disease.
There are many causes of fever. The most common fever pathophysiology, however, is due to infection with invading organisms such as viruses and bacteria. Other causes include dehydration and other conditions causing inflammation inside the body. A very warm environment may also result in fever. Certain drugs also have side-effects that can lead to the manifestation of fever pathophysiology.
The normal temperature of the human body is 37 degrees Celsius (98.6 degrees Fahrenheit). Fever pathophysiology generally occurs inside the body when the body's temperature rises above the normal level for several hours or days. It is often considered significant when the body's temperature rises above 38 degrees Celsius (100.4 degrees Fahrenheit). One way to take the body temperature is through the use of a digital thermometer. A digital thermometer is a device that is capable of reading the body temperature when inserted under the axilla, in the mouth or in the anus.
Entry of bacteria or viruses inside the body often challenges the immune system. The immune system, the body's defense against infection, often produces cells to fight and control their spread inside the body. Activation of these cells by the presence of bacteria often causes a febrile response in the affected individual. Fever, therefore, is often considered a sign of an infection going on in the body and that the body is fighting to control that infection.
Dehydration is also another common factor in the development of fever pathophysiology. Diarrhea, vomiting, and excessive sweating without water replacement are the causes of dehydration. Other medical conditions, such as arthritis and leukemia, may also cause fever. Heat stroke, which is common during the summer months, is another trigger for the onset of fever pathophysiology.
Fever management often involves the use of antipyretic medications, or drugs known to lower the body temperature. A mild fever usually resolves without the use of these drugs. Patients with fever are often evaluated for the presence of infection. When infection from bacteria is the problem, antibiotics are frequently prescribed. Patients are also encouraged to have plenty of rest and to drink enough water everyday.