What is the Hedgehog Concept?

Margo Upson

The hedgehog concept is a corporate leadership strategy outlined in Jim Collins’ 2001 book, Good to Great. The concept is drawn from a Greek poem in which a cunning fox tries and continually fails to eat a hedgehog who was always able to roll into a ball at the key moment. Collins speculated that if companies were more like the hedgehog — that is, focusing on one thing and doing it well — all the cunning and brilliance out there would not be a threat to success.

In a bad economy, a company that only builds affordable motorbikes will survive while one that makes luxury motorcycles and ATVs might fail.
In a bad economy, a company that only builds affordable motorbikes will survive while one that makes luxury motorcycles and ATVs might fail.

Ancient Origins

The story of the hedgehog and the fox derives from an ancient Greek poem believed to have been written by Archilochus. In it, a cunning and brilliant fox grasps the complexity of the woodlands around him. He sets his mind on eating a hedgehog, and spends hours plotting the perfect attack.

The simple hedgehog can always roll into a defensive ball when attacked by a cunning fox.
The simple hedgehog can always roll into a defensive ball when attacked by a cunning fox.

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Meanwhile, the hedgehog, described as simplistic and somewhat dowdy, goes about its business unaware. When the fox ambushes, the hedgehog rolls himself into a spiny, impenetrable ball. Undeterred, the fox keeps re-strategizing, but the pattern repeats itself over and over. “The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing,” the poem famously concludes.

British philosopher and social theorist Isaiah Berlin expanded on this concluding idea in a 1953 essay called “The Hedgehog and the Fox.” Berlin used the poem to divide the world’s thinkers and philosophers into two groups, hedgehogs and foxes. Collins’ “hedgehog concept” is the application of these distinctions to the corporate world.

How to Identify a Hedgehog Concept

According to Collins, the best leaders and corporate strategists reach success because they have identified their company’s unique hedgehog concept. Identifying such a concept starts with three separate assessments. First, leaders must ask themselves what the company is deeply passionate about. This might be customer service, or selling a certain product. Next, there should be a frank assessment of what the company realistically can and cannot be the best in the world at. Finally, there needs to be a determination of what drives the corporation’s “economic engine” — that is, an identification of the relevant profit structure and where it is rooted.

The hedgehog concept is where these three assessments overlap. A corporation’s “one big thing” can be found in the intersection, Collins says. Business leaders following the concept will devote resources and energy to pursuing that one thing and doing it well, rather than searching around for new strategies and solutions.

The Overarching Importance of Consistency

One of the biggest benefits of the hedgehog concept in action is its consistency. Companies that devote themselves to one goal and constantly default to their known strengths in times of crisis are often better poised to overcome rough patches than are companies with many competing visions. While the concept is certainly no guarantee for business success, it has gained a lot of credibility as a workable model.

Value to Individuals

The hedgehog concept can also be useful to individuals. People who are unsure of their next steps in life or who are looking for ways to maximize their effectiveness are often well served by identifying their own personal “hedgehog.”

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Discussion Comments


I just read the book and this is completely wrong. It is the story of the Hedgehog and Fox, not the Tortoise and the Hare.


Also, the hedgehog is the most benign and beneficial of animals, but you'd be well advised not to bother it about.

Soft and fluffy underneath, but watch out for its spines if you want to give it a hard time.


Another part of the idea of a hedgehog versus a fox that I see is that hedgehogs are generally seen as fairly harmless, friendly animals. In some countries hedgehogs, especially pygmy hedgehogs, are kept as pets for their size, cleanliness and calm nature. Foxes, on the other hand, can be violent, sneaky, and generally dangerous, even though they can also be fairly small in size.

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