Emphysema and pneumonia are both conditions of the lungs. Both exhibit similar symptoms, such as coughing, wheezing and shortness of breath. Those with emphysema may be at a greater risk of developing pneumonia, especially the elderly.
The connection between the two is the weakened immune system caused by emphysema. When that occurs, a patient becomes more susceptible to other diseases of the lungs, such as pneumonia. The bacteria, virus, and fungi typically responsible for pneumonia can easily invade and lead to a dangerous situation if not monitored and treated properly.
Several possible causes of emphysema exist, but smoking is the primary cause. The irritants inhaled by smoking damages the lining of the lung, causes inflammation of the cells and tissues of the lung, and causes swelling in the bronchioles. Over time, emphysema continues to progress, often leading to fatal complications. What may start out as shortness of breath when walking or during some other activity will eventually progress to shortness of breath when sitting or resting. Wheezing and a light cough often accompany shortness of breath in emphysema patients.
As emphysema progresses, the lungs become more susceptible to infection and conditions such as pneumonia. Patients with emphysema and pneumonia may begin to notice the production of green or yellow sputum, muscle aches, and fever. In addition, breathing may become more difficult and a rapid heart beat may be noticeable.
Patients with emphysema and pneumonia need specific treatment to manage the difficulties associated with this deadly combination. Antibiotics will often be prescribed to help fight the infection and reduce the strain on the lungs. Those with difficulty breathing may also be required to use oxygen to assist them. Severe cases, or infections occurring during advanced stages of emphysema, may require hospitalization.
Recovery for patients diagnosed with emphysema and pneumonia will depend on the severity of the disease. Some patients will benefit from pulmonary rehabilitation programs focused on teaching breathing techniques and medication management. These programs will also focus on how to avoid further infections and limit their chances of developing pneumonia in the future. Low-level exercise may also be recommended to help keep the patient active. Surgery to remove a portion of lung or place stents in the airways may be recommended in cases where physicians feel the benefits will outweigh the risks, but it is not common.