Synovitis of the knee is an inflammation of the lining of the knee joint, leading to pain and stiffness. It is the result of a buildup of synovial fluid, which normally lubricates the joint and keeps it moving smoothly. Trauma or arthritis are usually the causes and there are treatments available. The best treatment depends on the specifics of the case, and usually it is easier to treat when it is caught early.
In synovitis of the knee, the patient's knee joint starts to swell as a result of pressure created by excessive synovial fluid. The lining of the joint develops an inflammatory response, and the patient will notice pain, stiffness, and popping noises when trying to move the joint. Sometimes the joint becomes so painful that it is virtually impossible to bend. This condition is more common in athletes, as they put a lot of stress on their knees, but it can also happen to patients with arthritis as well as patients recovering from knee surgeries.
The knee may be tender on palpation and usually feels hot. A doctor who suspects knee synovitis can draw a fluid sample to look for signs of inflammation like lots of white blood cells. Medical imaging studies of the joint can also be helpful. Immediate treatment is rest, ice, compression, and elevation to see if it is possible to suppress the inflammation and restore normal joint function. If this appears to work, the patient can gradually resume normal activities to build up strength in the knee.
Patients who do not respond to conservative treatment may need steroid injections in the knee to reduce the swelling associated with synovitis of the knee. These will reduce pain and increase comfort, allowing the patient to start pursuing physical therapy to strengthen the joint again. In severe cases, the recommended treatment may be a knee replacement surgery, which can be total or partial. This surgery requires an expert surgeon and a lengthy recovery to allow the patient's knee to fully heal before returning to regular activity levels.
A patient with chronic synovitis of the knee or repeat flareups is at increased risk of permanent damage and the need for a knee replacement. If a patient keeps returning to the doctor for treatment, this may be a sign that the patient needs physical therapy, a longer rest period, or radical lifestyle changes, including a change of career or hobby to reduce stress on the joint.