What Is Narrative Poetry?

Caitlynn Lowe

Narrative poetry is poetry with a plot. The content and rhythmic nature of these poems reflect the oral practice that first started the narrative tradition. Epics and traditional ballads are the most common forms of narrative poetry, but lays and some idylls also qualify.

Homer's "Odyssey" is a classic example of narrative poetry.
Homer's "Odyssey" is a classic example of narrative poetry.

Every narrative poem tells a story with a beginning, middle, and end. The story either has an internal or external conflict, along with one or more characters caught up in that conflict. Some narrative poems directly describe the setting, but others do not.

A narrative poem might tell a love story.
A narrative poem might tell a love story.

Before literacy took root, storytellers needed to reconstruct tales from memory. Poetic elements — such as meter, rhyme, alliteration, and assonance — helped bards recall the words and events of multiple stories more easily than if those stories were only passed along as prose. Narrative poetry was typically chanted, giving it an entertaining quality. The subjects of these poems included both popular stories told solely for enjoyment and news concerning important events from other regions.

Spain's Poem of the Cid is an example of epic, narrative poetry.
Spain's Poem of the Cid is an example of epic, narrative poetry.

Epics, one of the most common types of narrative poetry, are long poems without stanzas that typically describe serious, heroic actions. Kings, demigods, warriors, and other noble figures fight for the fate of their culture, country, or world. The Odyssey, an Ancient Greek epic poem attributed to the poet Homer, tells the tale of Odysseus, a legendary king of Ithaca, as he fights to make his way back home after the Trojan War. Beowulf, an epic poem composed by an anonymous Anglo-Saxon poet sometime between 700 and 1000 CE, describes three battles fought by Beowulf, a hero and eventual king of the Geats.

The ballad, another type of narrative poetry, is typically shorter than the epic and slightly less serious. Most ballads can be divided into stanzas and contain repetitive frames and abrupt transitions. Ballad themes also cover a broader range of topics than epic themes, including love stories, religious lessons, and adventurous tales about folkloric heroes like Robin Hood. In modern popular music, however, the term "ballad" most often refers to a type of love song that does not tell a story and does not qualify as narrative poetry.

Lays are long, light-hearted narrative poems that were sung by minstrels and trouvères in the Middle Ages. These poems are related to the lyric poetry form, and both poetry types heavily rely on end rhymes and descriptions of feelings and personal experiences. The lyric is non-narrative in nature, though, while the lay tells a story through the use of these feelings and experiences.

An idyll can either refer to a short poem that paints a glamorized picture of rural farm life or a longer poem that tells the tale of a past hero. Whether the poet describes the life of a shepherd, a farmhand, or a military hero, an idyll that tells a story falls under the category of narrative poetry. If an idyll only describes a rural scene, however, without telling a story about a character within that scene, it is not narrative in nature.

The epic poem Beowulf describes several battles.
The epic poem Beowulf describes several battles.

You might also Like

Readers Also Love

Discussion Comments


@pleonasm - I think there is definitely room for more narrative poetry in the world. Especially narrative poems that are relatively short and well written.

In fact I would love it if slam poetry went more into this direction. With the advent of video sharing websites it seems like it's the perfect method for storytellers to justify their art. Poems that should be read aloud are probably going to be much more easily heard if they follow narrative rules.


@croydon - I don't think there's anything wrong with narrative poetry but I also don't think it would necessarily be more attractive to the average reader than another kind of poem. I mean, there are plenty of ways to get narrative. Pretty much every show on TV and every movie and every book and every video game follows some kind of narrative.

Trying to fit every poem into that same mold is only going to put them more into competition with other kinds of narrative and I'm afraid they will probably lose that battle. The advantage of poetry as an art form is that it can do unusual things with understanding and perspective and it can do them in a small amount of space, without having to follow the rules of narrative.


I think that narrative poetry is one way in which poetry can become mainstream. People like stories and they like good writing. If poets can start to make their poems more understandable as a story rather than just as an abstract description of something, then maybe the average person will be more inclined to read them.

Post your comments
Forgot password?