What is Melasma?

Tricia Christensen
Tricia Christensen

Melasma generally occurs when estrogen and/or progesterone stimulate pigmentation hormones, causing dark brown or grey, irregular sized patches on the face. The condition, also called chloasma or the mask of pregnancy, occurs most frequently in darker skinned women, but can also occur in lighter-skinned people of both sexes.

The Sun is the source of UVA and UVB rays, which can worsen Melasma.
The Sun is the source of UVA and UVB rays, which can worsen Melasma.

Melasma is primarily seen among women who are pregnant, taking birth control pills or using hormone replacement therapy. In general, the patches on the skin appear over time, and at first may resemble small moles. The patches are located on the cheeks, forehead and nose, and their irregularity in shape indicates the condition. When a pregnancy ends or hormone treatment is discontinued, the patches usually disappear in a few months.

Women on birth control pills may develop melasma.
Women on birth control pills may develop melasma.

Though women with darker skin are primarily predisposed to the condition, others may also be prone to melasma. Genetic predisposition may make one more susceptible to this condition, and dysfunction of the thyroid may also increase susceptibility. Allergic reactions to medication or cosmetics, and in some cases stress, can produce the condition. Although commonly thought of as a "woman's" disease, this condition is sometimes found in men, particularly those of Central American or Latin origin. The primary indicators in men are ancestry, exposure to sunlight, and family history.

Laser surgery is one treatment for melasma.
Laser surgery is one treatment for melasma.

Under a Wood lamp, melasma is easily diagnosed. The lamp makes it possible to see excess melanin in the skin and distinguish it from regular skin cells. Physicians may not need the Wood lamp for diagnosis, particularly if the patient is pregnant or taking estrogen or progesterone supplements. If the patient is not pregnant or taking hormones, more careful examination, including blood tests, may be made to rule out lupus, which can cause a "butterfly" mask over the nose, forehead and cheeks.

In some cases, both fair-skinned women and men can develop melasma.
In some cases, both fair-skinned women and men can develop melasma.

Besides the marks on the face, melasma does not cause any other physical conditions, and the condition generally resolves on its own without treatment. However, hydroquinone, a skin cream available by prescription or over the counter, has skin bleaching properties which can reduce the appearance of the condition. Another skin lotion, Tretinoin or Retin-A, increases the skin's acidity so new skin cells develop more quickly. This treatment cannot be used during pregnancy as it is deemed unsafe to the fetus.

Anyone with melasma should wear sunscreen that can block UVA and UVB rays whenever they are exposed to the sun.
Anyone with melasma should wear sunscreen that can block UVA and UVB rays whenever they are exposed to the sun.

Other treatments, including facial peels and laser surgery, are generally considered an option for people with persistent forms of the condition. In no case will the patches resolve immediately. All treatments produce gradual results.

Melasma is also called chloasma, and is characterized by dark brown or grey patches on the face.
Melasma is also called chloasma, and is characterized by dark brown or grey patches on the face.

Anyone with melasma should exercise particular caution outside. Sun exposure can worsen the condition, and when combined with medications like Tretinoin, can further dry the skin. Limited exposure to the sun is recommended, but if sun exposure is unavoidable, sunscreen that blocks both UVA and UVB rays should be worn at all times.

Melasma is common among women who are pregnant.
Melasma is common among women who are pregnant.
Chronic melasma may require facial peels or laser treatments.
Chronic melasma may require facial peels or laser treatments.
Some pregnant women develop melasma.
Some pregnant women develop melasma.
Tricia Christensen
Tricia Christensen

Tricia has a Literature degree from Sonoma State University and has been a frequent wiseGEEK contributor for many years. She is especially passionate about reading and writing, although her other interests include medicine, art, film, history, politics, ethics, and religion. Tricia lives in Northern California and is currently working on her first novel.

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Discussion Comments

anon327899

I'm 40 years old and I'm taking thyroid pills. I have had black spots on my nose, cheeks and forehead for six months. Please help me solve my problem.

anon266287

I too have this dreadful skin problem. I am twelve years old. Of course, I don't take birth control pills. It just popped up this morning as one spot. Now there are five or more.

anon163682

I have had melasma for about two and a half years. I am not pregnant and not on birth control or anything. I am 15 years old.

anon92553

i have melasma for two years. i used contraceptive pills before, and i have a problem in my thyroid hormone. can you give any solutions to whiten my melasma? please help me.

anon80142

I have had melasma for about four years. I'm not pregnant, do not take hormone replacements, do not take birth control. what else can be causing this?

I am 55 years old.

anon67283

i have had melasma i think. it looks like a mustache on brown, darker skin. it's been less than a year and i'm taking birth control. help me cure it. do i have to stop taking pills now?

anon65260

i have had melasma for about 10 years. i'm not pregnant and i'm not taking birth control pills. what else?

anon33072

Could be caused from the xenoestrogens you intake from the environment- bovine growth hormone in dairy and beef, hormones in chickens, parabens in lotions and cosmetics, etc. These are a few that could be raising your estrogen levels even though you do not take any other hormones.

anon25168

i have also melasma for about 8 years. just on my

nose. i am not pregnant. when i was 18 years old. it started to come up...Right now i am 24 years old still have problem...i don't use any birth control, don't take any hormone replacement.....

how can i solve the problem?

jilly1405

I too have had melasma for about 4 years. Im 33 years of age not pregnant, no birth control. I have just had my fourth face peel, which shows immediate results. Unfortunately it returns. Someone told me there maybe a relationship between overheating of the blood through regular exercise.

anon3121

I have had melasma for about 4 years. I'm not pregnant, do not take hormone replacements, do not take birth control what else can be causing this?

I am 40 years old.

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