Hematometra is a clinical term describing an accumulation of blood in the uterus. There can be a number of potential causes for this condition and treatment is dependent on finding the source of the blood. Patients may notice a hematometra in the form of abnormal uterine bleeding or spotting, as well as a feeling of fullness and tenderness in the lower abdomen. A gynecologist is usually involved in diagnosis and treatment of this condition.
One potential cause of hematometra is hematosalpinx, where bleeding occurs in the fallopian tube. This can be the result of a tubal pregnancy, an infection, tumors, or trauma to the fallopian tubes. In this case, patients may also experience cramps and pain in the abdomen, often isolated to one side of the body, corresponding with the bleeding fallopian tube. Treatment can involve removal of the tube altogether in a surgery, along with less invasive measures like medications to treat infection and inflammation.
Patients with a vaginal septum, where something went wrong with the development of the vagina and the patient ended up with a doubled vaginal structure, can also develop hematometra. Many patients with this condition have it without being aware of it until a problem develops and diagnostic testing reveals the presence of the vaginal septum. Treatment options can include surgery to address the vaginal defect.
Disorders of the female genital tract are a cause for concern both because of the immediate medical issues and due to their potential impacts on fertility. Persistent abnormal uterine bleeding can be seen in inflammatory conditions associated with loss of fertility. Women who want to have children or who plan on having more children should seek prompt treatment even if they are not experiencing pain or tenderness. More fertility-preserving treatment options will be available if the condition is identified early.
During a bout of hematometra, patients may be advised to wear pads and panty liners to deal with the blood produced. Using tampons may not be recommended if there are concerns about trauma or infection, depending on the situation and a gynecologist's preference. Women may also be asked to keep an eye on how often they have to change pads, as this can provide information about the volume of blood being produced. Women who start to experience dizziness, fainting, clammy skin, or disorientation may be suffering from dangerously high blood loss and should seek medical treatment immediately to get their blood volume back up.