Diltiazem HCL belongs to a group of medications known as calcium channel blockers, which physicians might prescribe for the treatment of angina or high blood pressure. The action of the medication primarily affects cardiac and smooth muscle, resulting in the relaxation of the targeted tissue. Adverse reactions as a result of the relaxation, ranging from mild to life threatening, can occur. Health care providers may also recommend various lifestyle changes in addition to prescribing medication for high blood pressure treatment.
Physicians believe diltiazem HCL slows or prevents calcium ions from flowing into cardiac and smooth muscle cells, which include vascular tissue. The cellular response to this action is typically inhibition of contraction or constriction. Angina pectoris and the associated chest pain is usually caused by a lack of oxygen circulating through the heart. This situation generally occurs because of vascular spasms or insufficient oxygen supplied during physical activity. Relaxing the cardiac blood vessels improves blood flow, providing an increased amount of oxygen and relieving symptoms.
Hypertension occurs for a number of reasons. Excess blood volume may apply pressure to the interior of vessel walls, the blood vessel walls might become abnormally thickened, or various chemicals and enzymes could cause the blood vessels to constrict. Diltiazem HCL relaxes the smooth muscle layer of blood vessels, releasing internal pressure and lowering blood pressure. Health care providers might prescribe various types of medications simultaneously depending on the circumstances causing the hypertension.
Dosages of diltiazem HCL vary, depending on the type and seriousness of the particular condition being treated. Blood pressure and pulse are generally monitored by physicians and patients to ensure the effectiveness of treatment. Physicians also recommend that patients report any possible adverse reactions noticed while taking diltiazem HCL.
Common adverse effects associated with diltiazem HCL include headache and dizziness caused by blood vessel dilation. The medication also affects the smooth muscle of the stomach and intestines, which might cause abdominal discomfort or constipation. Effects that are more serious may occur when the medication interferes with the heart’s conduction pathways. Diltiazem HCL impedes calcium ion flow into the particular cells that regulate these electrical impulses. This interference with the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodes can produce varying degrees of heart blockage.
Depending on the causes and the severity of the angina or hypertensive condition, patients might also be required to take diuretics, cholesterol-controlling agents, or other hypertension medications. Health care providers may suggest dietary modifications if high fat and sodium levels are factors. Patients are usually encouraged to maintain a healthy weight and increase the amount of aerobic exercise they receive.