What is Cytopenia?

Dulce Corazon

In medicine, the word cyto refers to a cell, and penia means low or decreased. A cytopenia therefore, is a disorder characterized by low or decreased levels of one or more blood components in the circulation. Blood has several components including the red blood cells (RBC), platelets, and white blood cells (WBC). RBCs are cells that deliver oxygen and nutrients to all parts of the body. Platelets are important in blood clotting, and WBCs act to defend the body against infections.

Using a combination of antiretroviral drugs can help prevent pancytopenia in those with HIV.
Using a combination of antiretroviral drugs can help prevent pancytopenia in those with HIV.

The complete blood count (CBC) is a blood test often requested by physicians to evaluate the presence of cytopenia in ill patients. The CBC shows the value of WBC, platelets, and RBC in a blood sample. When all components of the blood are decreased, the condition is called pancytopenia. Pancytopenia is usually seen in cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, severe Vitamin B12 deficiency, and aplastic anemia, which is a condition where the bone marrow fails to produce blood cells.

Shortness of breath is one symptom of cytopenia.
Shortness of breath is one symptom of cytopenia.

A cytopenia that shows a deficiency in the amount of RBC in the circulation is known as anemia. Anemia is usually caused by other underlying diseases that result in bleeding, increased destruction of RBC in the circulation, and abnormal production of RBC by the bone marrow. Symptoms include poor concentration, weakness, palpitations or increased heart rate, and shortness of breath during exertion. If severe, anemia is usually treated with blood transfusion.

Blood samples are used in complete blood count tests.
Blood samples are used in complete blood count tests.

Low WBC in the circulation is called leukopenia. This type of cytopenia is frequently caused by infections such as malaria, influenza, and tuberculosis. Some forms of cancer, such as leukemia and Hodgkin's lymphoma also present with low WBC count. The most common cause of this form of cytopenia, however, is due to cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Patients with leukopenia may present with headache, weakness, and fever, and they are more prone to catch infections easily.

DHF is a viral infection transmitted by an infected mosquito.
DHF is a viral infection transmitted by an infected mosquito.

Low or reduced platelet count is known as thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia is usually caused by other underlying conditions, such as bone marrow cancer and chronic liver disease, which lead to the decreased production of platelets. It may also result from the increased destruction of platelets in the circulation, such as seen in cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and chemotherapy treatment.

Low red blood cell count is one form of a cytopenia.
Low red blood cell count is one form of a cytopenia.

DHF is a viral infection transmitted by an infected mosquito. It usually presents with symptoms of sudden onset of high fever, severe headache, muscle pains, and rashes. The presence of bruises in the skin and bleeding from the nose and gums are also commonly seen among dengue patients and other patients with thrombocytopenia.

Blood transfusions are often used to treat anemia.
Blood transfusions are often used to treat anemia.

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Discussion Comments

ysmina

@candyquilt-- Yes, anemia is a type of cytopenia. It's when the body has lower than normal amount of red blood cells.

Someone with an iron deficiency won't necessarily always have anemia. But many people with iron deficiency do experience anemia eventually because iron is required to produce red blood cells. When this occurs, it's called "iron deficiency anemia." So iron deficiency itself is not a type of cytopenia but iron deficiency anemia is.

The symptoms your roommate has are typical symptoms of iron deficiency anemia. It's common to feel cold, look pale and crave strange things like ice and clay. She must also have fatigue. It's important for her to take her supplements regularly to avoid anemia and cytopenia.

candyquilt

So anemia is a type of cytopenia correct? And what about iron deficiency? Most people refer to iron deficiency as anemia so is iron deficiency also a type of cytopenia?

My roommate has anemia. She has to take iron supplements and if she forgets, she faints. She's also super pale as a result and craves ice!

stoneMason

I'm not an expert on this topic but as far as I know, some cancer treatments like chemotherapy may also cause cytopenia. When my grandmother was battling cancer and being treated with chemotherapy, I remember that she had to give blood samples sometimes to make sure that her blood cells were in the normal range. She even needed a transfusion once because her levels were too low.

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