A type of situational irony, cosmic irony occurs when a situation, action, or event thought to have a positive outcome results in a negative outcome through circumstance rather than the actions of a specific person. These events are blamed on an unknown force, usually referred to as God, Fate, or the Universe, which seems responsible for the negative consequences. Also called irony of fate, this is popularly used in casual speech as well as in literature and can be seen in history.
Irony occurs when someone directly involved in a situation believes something to be true when, in fact, the opposite or near opposite is true. In most forms of irony, the player directly involved is unaware of his or her misconception, but the audience and other players are aware. Cosmic irony considers the universe to be the entity responsible for twisting circumstances so what the player believes will be true is not.
Although cosmic irony can also often be termed as coincidence or bad luck, not all coincidences are cosmic irony. It deals only in those coincidences where the action or event is assumed by the person taking the action to have a positive outcome when the actual outcome results in a detrimental consequence to that person. Unlike other forms of irony, where someone else is responsible for the twist in circumstance or the misconception of a good result, in cosmic irony it is an unknown force, such as fate or the universe, that seems to be working against the person.
In literature, cosmic irony is normally used intentionally by the author. A villain may fall pray to this plot technique, for example, if he or she devises a seemingly cunning plan to defeat the protagonist only to find the very plan the villain set in motion is what brings about his or her downfall. William Shakespeare's play Othello and J.K. Rowling's Harry Potter series both illustrate this use.
Cosmic irony also can be seen in daily or historical situations. Sometimes, the irony is apparent immediately, but often it is seen in retrospect. For example, in the early twentieth century, Australian sugar cane farmers near Queensland began to have a severe problem with an introduced species of cane beetle, which decimated their crops. In 1935, a solution was reached: introduce the cane toad, which is harmless to crops but preys on the cane beetle. The farmers' solution, however, not only failed to control their pest problem, it also resulted in the introduction of one of the most invasive and environmentally destructive species Australia had ever seen.