What Is an Income and Expenditure Statement?

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  • Written By: Malcolm Tatum
  • Edited By: Bronwyn Harris
  • Last Modified Date: 09 May 2020
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An income and expenditure statement is a type of financial document designed to identify all forms of income that is received within a given period, while also documenting all payments or expenditures that were related to that same period. In addition to being used as a means of assembling historical data, it is also possible to compile this type of report for a future period, basing the combination of expenditures and income on projections of activity for that period. With either application, the idea is to utilize the data for purposes of analyzing the balance between income and expenditures and determine if the result of the activity is in the best interests of the business operation.

One of the goals of the income and expenditure statement is to create a tool that is helpful with the task of financial management. To this end, all types of income and expenditures relevant to the period are taken into consideration. This means that both realized or unrealized income that is known at the time is included in the statement detail, along with both paid and unpaid debt obligations. There are a few exceptions that may apply, such as the exclusion of income that is generated by the sale of a capital asset, or the income or sales that are connected with a legacy.

The value of an income and expenditure statement, whether for a recently completed time period or as a projection for an upcoming period, is to have some idea about the financial well being of the company. This approach makes it possible to analyze basic information that may in turn trigger some changes in the way the company manages debt or how available resources are utilized. Along with companies that function in order to make a profit, other organizations such as clubs, societies, or even hospitals operated by charitable organizations can make use of this particular tool in tracking the relationship between income and the management of debt.

Under the best of circumstances, the income and expenditure statement will indicate that the current level of revenue generation from various sources is sufficient to sustain the operation, given the amount of debt that is currently being managed. By comparing each income and expenditure statement associated with several successive periods, it is possible to identify positive or negative trends that can be evaluated more closely and possibly yield ideas on how to arrange company finances to better advantage. Doing so can increase the chances for strengthening the financial position of the company or at least keeping damage to that stability as low as possible during some sort of broader economic turndown.

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