What Is a Volcanic Belt?

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  • Written By: Wanda Marie Thibodeaux
  • Edited By: O. Wallace
  • Last Modified Date: 09 August 2019
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A volcanic belt is a geographical region in which very high levels of volcanic activity are present. They often are compared to mountain ranges in appearance, but unlike mountain ranges, volcanic belts are able to produce eruptions with gases, ash, rock, lava or other ejecta. Additionally, some volcanic belts have been dormant for so many years they have been eroded nearly flat. They may form in two distinct ways: plate subduction or due to hot spots in the Earth.

When temperatures below the crust are very high, around 1292 to 2552 degrees Fahrenheit (700 to 1400 Celsius), solid material in the Earth's crust and mantle is able to melt. This melted material, called magma, becomes less dense than rock because on the atomic level, heat causes atoms to become more excited, vibrating in a larger area of space. Materials that are less dense always try to rise, so the magma rises, seeking out any weak point in the Earth's crust. The result typically is a bulge in the Earth's crust, which eventually opens if the pressure becomes great enough. A volcanic belt is simply many of these bulges within an area.


Melting of solid materials in the Earth's crust and upper mantle happens with much greater frequency around the boundaries of the tectonic plates, which are large sections of the Earth's crust. These plates move over a layer of malleable rock called the athenosphere. Geologists think this movement happens at least in part because of the convection currents that are present deeper within the Earth. At a subduction plate boundary where one plate slides underneath another, melting of crust material happens at a greater rate, so subduction plate boundaries often are where volcanic belts form.

Sometimes a volcanic belt forms because a tectonic plate moves slowly over an area where the inner Earth is much hotter than usual. In this case, a volcanic belt can occur far away from a plate boundary. Perhaps the best example of a volcanic belt formed in this way is the Hawaiian Islands.

Volcanoes can take hundreds or even thousands of years between eruptions, depending on the rate at which material melts below the crust and how quickly pressure builds. As a result, many of the volcanoes within volcanic belts are dormant. This does not mean they will not erupt in the future. It just means they are not currently active. Geologists are using increasingly sophisticated technologies to try to predict when eruptions will happen, but people still build and live in close proximity to volcanic belts despite the dangers. Subsequently, the potential for loss of property and life due to an eruption still exists.


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Post 3

@Animandel - I understand what you are saying about volcanoes being a force of nature and having the power to destroy houses and vegetation and pretty much anything that gets in their paths. However, on the other side of the coin, the volcanoes also have the ability to create new land.

I have seen lava from an active volcano flowing into the sea. Once the water hits the lava and the lava cools it forms new land. Isn't this amazing that after all these years the earth is still changing and expanding?

Post 2

@Feryll - I agree with you one-hundred percent. The volcanoes of Hawaii are awesome. I am aware that the majority of tourists go to Hawaii for the beaches and the warm weather, but if you ask me then the volcanoes are the most impressive feature of Hawaii, and the beaches and all of that other stuff are distant runners up.

What really fascinates me is that a volcano can be inactive for so long and then become active and erupt and have the potential to cause so much destruction. When they are dormant, they appear so peaceful and majestic.

Post 1

A couple of years ago, a friend took me to Hawaii. His parents have a vacation house on the Big Island and they let us use the house for a week. The trip was great. We were right on the water and we could swim in the pool and look out at the dolphins swimming in the ocean right off shore.

While the swimming and the dolphins were great, the most interesting part of the trip was getting the opportunity to see what all of the volcano eruptions over the years had done to the landscape. There are places where you can walk for miles and miles and all you see all around you is black rock. The rocks were formed when the volcanoes erupted and the hot lava poured across the landscape. Then when the lava cooled it formed the black rocks.

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