A rat snake is a type of reptile, or cold-blooded creature covered with scales, that primarily resides in areas through the United States. It belongs to the elaphe obsoleta species. The reptile gets its name due to its appearance when it is young. Young rat snakes have similar coloring to the rodent, the gray rat, with a light gray underside and dark gray colored outer scales. As the reptiles mature, its appearance can differ significantly depending on the exact subspecies it belongs to.
There are three main subspecies of the rat snake: black, gray, and yellow. Black rat snakes tend to be more commonly found in the northern regions on the United States, including the state of Michigan and the New England region. The gray subspecies usually reside in more Southern states, such as South Carolina and Georgia. Yellow rat snakes are generally found along the coastal areas of North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. The size of the rat snake tends to be consistent across the different subspecies with an average length of 40 to 70 inches (101.6 to 177.8 cm).
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The rat snake is a variety of constrictor reptile, meaning it can wrap itself around prey and squeeze the prey tightly enough to restrict its movement and breathing. In addition to its constriction ability, the snake can also slither up tall surfaces. If rat snakes feel threatened, they usually remain completely still before shaking its tail and releasing an unpleasant scent as a deterrent to predators. While the reptiles do not tend to be aggressive or engage in confrontations, in some cases they may attack predators in self-defense.
The diet of the rat snake can vary depending on its age. Younger rat snakes generally eat small animals, like frogs, lizards, and mice. Once the reptiles reach adulthood, they tend to mostly consume rodents, particularly mice, moles, rats, and chipmunks. They may also eat young birds or bird eggs.
Rat snakes follow a reproductive cycle that usually begins in the two to three months after they come out of hibernation, around the months of April, May, and June. The males will generally release chemicals, known as pheromones, to nearby females, which act as a signal to the females that the males want to reproduce. After the mating, a female rat snake usually lays eggs after about five weeks and buries them in piles of leaves or underneath logs. The eggs then tend to hatch within 70 days. Healthy females can typically go the egg laying process approximately two times each year.