A negative charge is an electrical property of a particle at the subatomic scale. Physically, it maintains the inverse reaction to positively charged particles, creating a electromagnetic field that demonstrates a certain level of force, keeping both particles in a united and reactive state. The most prevalent example can be found within electrons, which maintain an electromagnetic field with the positively-charged protons. Both these elements are essential to maintaining the integrity of atoms. As such, negative charges are part of the fundamental forces of physics law.
When two negative charges meet, a force known as repulsion is exerted, causing both particles to push away from one another. Inversely, negative and positive charges attract, which is known as Coulomb's law. These two principle properties of charges make up the general basis for the laws of electrodynamics. Certain particles, such as photons, can have a different effect on negative charges, however, causing different reactions to occur. This change in the laws of electrodynamics is the basis for quantum theory, the study of anomalies within the principles of physics.
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Electrons are highly prevalent within the universe and contain no substructures. Smaller than protons, their mass is only 1/1836 of their positively-charged counterparts. They are essential to the activity of magnetism, electricity, and the causes of thermal conductivity. Electrons are also responsible for chemical bonding between elements. This occurs when an electron is shared by an atom or exchanged through the chemical process.
It is believed by many scientists that the negative charge found within electrons was established during the Big Bang. Electrons were created in the massive explosion and took their place among other Fermions, or physical forms of particles. Also created at the time was the positron, the antiparticle of the electron. Unlike electrons, however, the charge of a positron is not negative. This means that when collisions occur between the two particles, both are annihilated, creating gamma ray photons in their place.
Negative charges were first identified by the ancient Greeks. In approximately 600 BC, Thales of Miletus rubbed fur on amber, creating attractive forces. A number of scientists worked through the centuries to identify different forms of electromagnetic interaction, eventually settling on a system that defined different reasons for attraction and repulsion based on materials. In 1839, Michael Faraday identified the existence of different polarities. He defined one of these polarities as maintaining a negative charge, although the distinction between positive and negative charges was purely arbitrary.