What is a Mud Lion?

Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

A mud lion is a geographic feature which forms in a desert area. Mud lions are created when winds packed with abrasive sand repeatedly scour rock, creating outcroppings of material which can often develop into into fanciful shapes, especially when people look at them with imagination in mind. The development of mud lions is often a sign of desertification, as they are associated with hot, dry areas with steady winds; in areas with abundant natural moisture, mud lions cannot form, since the wind cannot pick up dried dust and dirt.

Mud lions, also known as yardangs, are created when winds repeatedly scour rock into shapes.
Mud lions, also known as yardangs, are created when winds repeatedly scour rock into shapes.

As a general rule, a mud lion forms from soft rock, like limestone or sandstone, although mud lions can also be formed from harder materials. It can take centuries for a mud lion to appear, and often they appear in clusters, like ridges along the desert's surface. Mud lions are also known as yardangs, from a Turkic word which is used to refer to steep banks. “Yardang” entered the English language in the early 1900s.

Historians have suggested that the Sphinx may have started as a mud lion and was then enhanced by Egyptian stoneworkers.
Historians have suggested that the Sphinx may have started as a mud lion and was then enhanced by Egyptian stoneworkers.

In order for a yardang to form, conditions must be hot and dry, and the wind must be steady. The wind must also come from a constant direction, because otherwise the rock would be equally worn down, simply melting away rather than forming a distinctive outcropping. These conditions are common in many parts of Africa, especially in the Egyptian desert, where mud lions are quite abundant.

As the slang term “mud lion” suggests, yardangs often erode into shapes which look like people, animals, or structures. Some historians have suggested that the Sphinx may have started out as a mud lion before being enhanced by Egyptian stoneworkers. Some people refer to mud lions as natural Sphinxes, since many of them do end up looking rather Sphinx-like, thanks to the fact that they tend to develop a tapered shape, with the windward end being much bulkier than the lee end.

In addition to being found in Africa, it is also possible to see mud lions in North America, where they abound in national parks which include desert areas. These yardangs can vary widely in size and shape, from monolithic and relatively new outcroppings to small, old nubbins. On occasion, conditions are right for a hole to be bored through a mud lion, creating a tunnel through the outcropping which can make quite a remarkable sight.

Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a wiseGEEK researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

You might also Like

Readers Also Love

Discussion Comments


The second to last paragraph brings up a very good point, as maybe people have seen more mud lions in their lives than they thought. Though I've never seen a sphinx up close, I have seen images online, and in several forms of media. It's true that they do look like "mud lions", in a sense.


@Euroxati - Even though you're right in the sense that mud lions aren't seen as often as some other geographic figures, reread the last paragraph. If you want to see a mud lion closeup, you should go to the nearest national park, which may even have a desert area. Based on my experience, I have seen them up close, and it's amazing what can be formed from the laws of nature.


The funny thing about some articles is that until you read them, you won't get a full definition of what's being described. For example, upon seeing the title of this article, I had assumed that a mud lion was a lion that lays around in the mud all day to cool off. Surprisingly though, I was wrong. However, more in relation to this article, these geographic figures sound very interesting, and I would love to see one up close. However, unless one is traveling through the desert, it's probably not seen often by people.

Post your comments
Forgot password?