A jet nebulizer is a medical device which converts liquid medication into an aerosolized mist which is easy to inhale. Jet nebulizers are used in the treatment of a range of pulmonary conditions, including asthma and cystic fibrosis. They are also known simply as nebulizers or atomizers. Many medical equipment suppliers sell these devices, along with accessories such as tubing, mouthpieces, and face masks which can be used with them.
A jet nebulizer is used when a patient might have difficulty taking medication in other ways, such as with a metered dose inhaler. These devices are often used in hospital settings when a lot of medication needs to be delivered to the patient's lungs quickly, as when a patient is in respiratory distress. They can also be used at home for breathing treatments. Portable jet nebulizers are available for people with chronic pulmonary conditions who might require treatments while traveling.
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To use a jet nebulizer, the patient inserts a nebulizer cup filled with saline solution mixed with medication. Some nebulizers work with sterile single use packages of medication which are inserted into the device before each use. When the nebulizer is turned on, a jet of air is forced through the medication, turning it into a fine spray which is moved along a tube. The patient inhales the medication, ideally through a mouthpiece to ensure that as much medication as possible enters the lungs, although a face mask can be used if the patient will not tolerate a mouthpiece.
After the nebulizer session is often, the patient is often left with an unpleasant taste in the mouth. Rinsing the mouth and brushing the teeth can help eliminate this. Cleaning the mouth is extremely important if the patient has inhaled steroids, because leaving the steroid residue in the mouth can contribute to the development of infections. Nebulizer sessions vary in length, depending on the amount of medication being administered.
All of the pieces of a jet nebulizer need to be kept scrupulously clean. Any dirt and contamination will enter the patient's airway, and since patients using such devices usually already have compromised airways, this could lead to serious complications. Most are designed with disposable tubes and mouthpieces which can be discarded after use, although when someone is using the device at home, it may be possible to simply wash and dry these attachments and use them again later. After use, the jet nebulizer should be wiped down and covered to protect it from contamination.