What is a Dirndl?

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  • Written By: Mary McMahon
  • Edited By: Bronwyn Harris
  • Last Modified Date: 25 September 2019
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A dirndl is a type of a dress which was once commonly worn in Bavaria and Austria, and it continues to be worn in these regions for special occasions, to celebrate the rich heritage and traditions of the area. Many people associate the dirndl specifically with Munich's Oktoberfest, an annual festival at which dirndls are extremely common. They may also be worn at fairs, traditional restaurants, and tourist shops, and they are readily available for purchase from many stores in Germany and Austria. An authentic dirndl, however, can be quite expensive.

The full name of the dress is dirndlkleid. Dirndl is a diminutive for “woman” which is still sometimes used in these regions although it is somewhat obsolete in most of Germany. The kleid means simply “dress.” Originally, these dresses were worn by peasants and maids, and the term was meant to describe a dress worn by a maid or servant. In the 1800's, the upper classes started adopting the dirndl as holiday wear in the country, and the dress quickly became enshrined as an emblem of German heritage.


Several elements can be used to identify a traditional dirndl. The first is the classically low-cut, squared neckline, although modern dirndls are much more revealing than their historical counterparts. The bodice of the dress is also typically tight, and the dress is either sleeveless or it has short, puffy sleeves. The skirts of a dirndl are long and very full, flaring out from the tight bodice in a way which many observers find quite charming. Commonly, an apron is worn with the dirndl, as a reminder of its peasant roots.

The colors used in a dirndl vary widely, as do the fabrics. Traditional dirndls were made from more somber, heavy fabrics for winter wear, and lighter, cheerier fabrics for the summer. The dresses might also be decorated with regional crests and embroidery such as flowers and fanciful animals, and various forms of decorative trim were not uncommon. Each region developed its own unique version of the dirndl, so you may find a variety of stylings labeled “traditional.”

In addition to purchasing a ready-made dirndl or Landhausmode, a dress based on the dirndl design, people can also sew their own or order custom-fit garments from seamstresses. Given the ideally snug fit of a bodice, it is a good to create a custom dirndl to ensure that it will fit smoothly and look pleasant; off-the-rack garments may have to be adjusted for proper fit, and these adjustments are well worth it for people who want to model this traditional Austrian and German dress well.


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