What Is a Court Jester?

Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

The tradition of the court jester, a man who would amuse courtiers and monarchs with his antics and jokes, is ancient. Most people associate jesters with medieval and Renaissance Europe, but in the fact the practice of retaining a jester or fool goes back beyond the birth of Christ. In the modern era, jesters can still be found, although the official position of a royal jester at court is not often filled. Many fans of medieval history like to dress up as jesters, celebrating a rich and complex tradition. The jester can also be seen symbolically in many places, including decks of cards, where he is known as the joker.

Woman holding a book
Woman holding a book

The classic uniform of a court jester includes a tri-pointed floppy hat with bells, and brightly colored uniquely patterned clothing. Many garments in the medieval age were actually quite bright and even garish by modern standards, but the court jester would have stood out, thanks to the distinctive hat and ringing of bells which accompanied every movement. Some jesters were also gifted with jewelry, beautiful clothing, and other presents in thanks for their services, and they undoubtedly would have worn their gifts to demonstrate their favor.

The position of the court jester was actually very complicated. On the surface, a jester might be taken as a mere buffoon, but he also had to walk a fine line in the court, as he had no official place in the ranks of the court. This allowed jesters to be more free with their opinions, since their words could be considered jokes, but they had to be careful about overstepping their boundaries, as a court jester who went too far could be punished by the monarch.

In some cases, people who were disabled took up a position as court jester. The mentally disabled might find a place in medieval society by capering and frolicking at court, thereby relieving their families of a significant burden. Other jesters were trained musicians, actors, or artists, and some of them even became trusted and valued confidants in the court.

Many court jesters were extremely intelligent and sensitive to the political and social trends of their eras. Their skilled entertainments might have included clever or subtle gibes at the enemies of the king, along with commentary on general problems in society. A jester could also purely entertain, of course, with acrobatics, music, silly songs, and many jesters or buffoons did just that during periods of uncertainty and fear.

Mary McMahon
Mary McMahon

Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a wiseGEEK researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors.

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Discussion Comments


Thanks for this article! It's helping me write my honors english report! If anyone knows were I can get more information on court jesters, harlequins, or the like, please post.


I happen to be active as Royal Court Jester, having been appointed by Nabob Frankio el Primero of LOHALG (Land of Hope and Lost Glory) near Malaga, Spain. You can find me on Youtube.


I am just re-reading Victor Hugo's "The Man Who Laughs". The title character is a man who, as a small child, was sold to the providers of jesters. His face was remodelled to show him as laughing all the time. Hugo claimed that children were remodelled in various ways. Anyone know where I can find proof of this?


It must be the time for jesters to reappear as I have been researching them, pierrots and harlequins, mimes and clowns the last week. Thanks for your addition. Cheery from New Zealand.


This is great. it will totally help me.


Helpful. thanks.


thanks a ton! it helped with my report!


Helpful. Thanks.

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