Most types of ovarian cysts are harmless, but complex ovarian cysts actually pose a danger to women who develop them. This kind of cyst can cause discomfort, irregular bleeding, and symptoms of pregnancy, such as nausea and breast tenderness. The typical complex ovarian cyst is made up of both solid and liquid material, and most require surgery or medication to be controlled. The three main types are dermoid, cystadenomas, and endometrioma.
A regular cyst, which is also called a functional cyst, often develops during the menstrual cycle and has few, if any, symptoms. Typically, the worst type of outcome with a functional cyst is that it will grow and eventually twist the ovary, causing pain in the abdomen. On the other hand, the worst outcome possible for a complex ovarian cyst is death, though most just cause pain and uncomfortable symptoms that include nausea, vomiting, breast tenderness, irregular bleeding, and extreme pelvic pain. In fact, some women experience the same symptoms that often appear in ectopic pregnancy or endometriosis, both of which are known for being quite painful. It is important to get complex ovarian cysts checked by a doctor right away to make sure they are not cancerous.
One of the three main types of complex cysts is a dermoid cyst, which grows from the same cells as a human egg. Thus, this kind of complex ovarian cyst often has human cells, such as hair, skin, or even teeth, and though it is not usually cancerous, it is typically painful. Another type of complex ovarian cyst is endometrioma, which occurs in those with endometriosis. It is typically found outside of the uterus, and sometimes causes issues involving the ovaries, making fast treatment crucial. A cystadenoma contains both liquid and mucus, and can twist around easily, which means that it can become quite painful.
Typically, a pelvic examination is necessary to diagnose a complex ovarian cyst. In fact, a pelvic ultrasound, blood test, and pregnancy test are all frequently used to diagnose this kind of ovarian mass and make sure that cancer or an ectopic pregnancy are not present. In many cases, surgery is the best treatment option, especially if the cyst appears to be large or growing. It can be performed through laparoscopy, which involves making several tiny incisions and then removing any cysts that are found. Pain medication can also be given to control the discomfort that usually comes along with a complex ovarian cyst.