A 110cc ATV is one of several types of ATVs, or all terrain vehicles. The distinction 110cc refers to the size of engine installed by the manufacturer. Smaller internal combustion engines, especially those used in motorcycles and ATVs, are measured in cubic centimeters, abbreviated to cc. In terms of ATV sizes, which range from 50cc up to 500cc or more, 110cc ATVs are considered small, adult-size all terrain vehicles. Frequently, a 110cc ATV is considered by experienced operators and safety organizations to be a transitional ATV size for young adult riders over the age of 16.
Terms such as 110cc refer to the total volume swept through the cylinders of an internal combustion engine. Better known as engine displacement, the larger the numeric value, the more powerful the engine. Numeric measurements such as 50cc, 110cc, and 500cc indicate the area available inside all the cylinders of a particular engine. For example, a 500cc ATV has more power than a 110cc ATV because the cylinder bore is larger and the stroke longer, translating to more area inside each cylinder.
Bore is the width of the piston opening, whereas stroke is the length of the piston's reach. Pistons draw air into the cylinders as the fuel mixture also enters. As the piston moves up, the mixture is compressed and ignited, with the resulting explosion pushing the piston down. Larger bores and longer strokes allow for higher volumes of air and fuel mixture in the cylinders, translating into a larger explosion and, thus, more engine power.
Engine size, at least in terms of ATVs, directly relates to vehicle size. Aside from being a more powerful machine, a 500cc ATV is typically a larger and heavier vehicle than a 110cc ATV. To illustrate sizing differences, a child's ATV for ages 6 to 12 is typically between 50cc and 70cc. Children older than 12, but younger than 16 are advised to operate ATVs between 70cc and 90cc. Each engine size directly relates to the completed size of the ATV, as well as the amount of power produced by the engine.
Various governmental agencies have laws in place that specifically state the age and body size required for different ATVs. National and international safety organizations also recommend certain engine sizes in ATVs for specific age groups. According to most recommendations, a 110cc ATV is more powerful than recommended for youths under the age of 16. While too powerful for a youth, a 110cc ATV is much smaller and less powerful than other ATVs in the adult category. It is therefore considered by many experienced riders as a transitional size.