A mini stock market crash shut down the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). (1997) Stock exchanges crashed around the world amid fears of a global economic crisis. The NYSE flipped its circuit breakers twice for the first time in its history, then officials decided to close trading early. It was the first time the exchange closed since an assassination attempt was made on US President Ronald Reagan's life in 1981.
The first essay of the Federalist Papers was published. (1787) The Federalist Papers included 85 essays written in support of ratifying the US Constitution. They were published in a series of articles run in the The New York Packet and The Independent Journal newspapers in New York. The US Constitution was ratified on June 21, 1788.
NASA launched the first Saturn I rocket. (1961) The rockets were part of the Apollo program and were designed to launch large aircraft or spacecraft into orbit. The launcher rockets were far more powerful and much larger than anything NASA had launched before — they needed six times as much fuel, were three times taller and had 10 times the thrust of previous rockets.
Two Quakers in an American colony were executed for their religious beliefs. (1659) Marmaduke Stevenson and William Robinson, who resided in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, had left England for fear of religious persecution. The were executed for violating a new law in the colony that banned Quakers.
US President Ronald Reagan began his political career. (1964) President Reagan, then a Hollywood actor, gave a speech for US presidential candidate Barry Goldwater that later was called "A Time for Choosing." The speech launched Reagan into the political spotlight. He later became US President in 1981.
For the first time in US history, the prison population exceeded one million. (1994) The number only included state and federal prisons — there were more than a half million more short-term prisoners in local and county prisons. The numbers put the US second in the world, trailing only Russia, for the number of people incarcerated.
The British government deregulated its financial markets. (1986) The day became known as the "Big Bang," as economists expected a huge increase in trading under the new rules, which abolished fixed commission fees and established electronic trading, among other things.
The only casualty as a direct result of the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred. (1962) A reconnaissance plane was shot down by a Soviet surface-to-air missile, killing the pilot, US Air Force Major Rudolf Anderson.
The Missouri governor issued an "Extermination Order" against Mormons. (1838) Governor Lilburn Boggs demanded that Mormons leave the state or face "extermination." The order came as a result of conflicts between the Mormon church and the other people trying to settle in Missouri. The order wasn't rescinded until 138 years later.
US President Ronald Reagan tore down the US Embassy in Moscow. (1988) The President feared the building had been bugged by the Soviets and considered it a security risk.
The first underground rapid transit subway opened in New York City. (1904) The New York Subway system is one of the oldest in the world. With nearly 500 stations covering 229 miles (about 369 kilometers), it now is the biggest in the US and one of the largest systems in the world.