Give up the ghost is an English saying that is most commonly associated with ceasing to exist or function. The more common application of this idiom has to do with death, with the implication being that at the point of death the body gives up the spirit or ghost, which is then free to move on to another sphere or realm. A slightly different application of give up the ghost is utilized when an individual chooses to cease working on what is perceived as a lost cause, or chooses to cease activity on some task that has proven beyond his or her capabilities.
The origins of the idiom give up the ghost are sometimes traced back to the earlier versions of the Christian Bible. Versions as early as the 16th century included the use of the phrase in the Book of Acts of the Apostles, found in the New Testament of the Christian scriptures. In this particular text, Herod is struck down by an angel of the Lord, and is said to give up the ghost, or die.
In English-speaking countries, "give up the ghost" is only one of many colorful expressions used to describe the act of death. Such phrases as passing away, kicking the bucket, cashing in one’s chips, headed for a dirt nap, and buying the farm are only a few of the idioms and expressions that are used in the place of simply saying that an individual has died. Some of the colorful phrases used to describe dying are intended to imply that the spirit of the deceased is moving on to another realm of existence, while others that are considered less somber are sometimes used to either ease the sorrow that occurs when a loved one dies or perhaps even celebrate the death of an individual who is not particularly popular.
While often having to do with death, a broader application of this phrase has to do with simply giving up. For example, if an individual works hard to make a success of a business but is unable to make any profit with the operation, he or she may choose to giver up the ghost and shut down the enterprise. In like manner, the phrase can even refer to giving up on a romantic situations, such as a suitor giving up the ghost when it becomes obvious that the object of his or her affection will never return those romantic feelings.