Back scar tissue can be caused from various different medical problems and procedures, but the most common is from surgery. Scar tissue is formed when the body is injured and forms into fibrosis tissue that acts like a web, stabilizing the injured area while the damaged muscles or tendons try to heal themselves naturally. These adhesions can eventually heal on their own, may remain without causing any major problems, or they can be a steady source of pain for the person that has them. Even though surgery is the main cause for back scar tissue, basic damage due to repetitive motions and impact injuries can also cause the tendons and muscles to form adhesions.
Surgical procedures cause varying amounts of internal and external back scar tissue. The external scars are caused from the incisions made by the surgeon because once the skin is cut into sections, a line will be present, forming the scar that is visible. The internal scar tissue is similar to the external ones except for the fact that they cannot be seen. As with the exterior scars, these scars form when muscles and fatty areas are cut and spread apart in order to allow the surgeon access to the damaged area, or areas, within the back. Adhesions begin to form immediately, and when the incision is closed they will build a bond between the two sides that have been cut, forming the internal back scar tissue.
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Repetitive movements can also cause back scar tissue. The reason for this is because as the muscles and tendons overwork themselves, they can stretch and rip, causing internal damage. As described above, adhesions will form in an attempt to form a bond between the two damaged parts, allowing them to heal naturally. In severe cases the adhesions will not disappear, but will form into back scar tissue instead.
The final way for adhesions to form is when impact injuries occur. Damage to the back can cause injuries to the spine that allows fluid to drain into the back, or can cause swelling within the spinal cord. When spinal fluid is drained into the back, fibrous tissues form, producing the scar tissue. Swelling of the spinal cord works similarly to this except that the adhesions are formed due to the lack of oxygen within the surrounding muscles and tendons. The oxygen deficient areas will form internal back scar tissue in an attempt to heal them.