What Causes Abnormal Lymphocytes?

Jennifer Long

There are several causes of abnormal lymphocytes. A few differences distinguish these lymphocytes from their typical counterparts. Lymphocytes can be abnormal if their size, shape, or numbers stray away from normal classifications. Common causes of these abnormalities include any illness, condition, or disease that affects white blood cells. Examples include auto-immune conditions, reactive lymphocytes, and lymphoma.

Hepatitis can cause a high lymphocyte count.
Hepatitis can cause a high lymphocyte count.

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that falls into one of two groups. Granular lymphocytes are called natural killer cells, while small lymphocytes are made by the lymph nodes and are vital parts of the immune system. Any interference with these white blood cells can lead to abnormal lymphocytes.

A diagram of the effects of leukemia, showing a high lymphocyte count.
A diagram of the effects of leukemia, showing a high lymphocyte count.

Abnormal lymphocytes are found by testing either blood samples or lymph fluid from the lymphatic system. The amount, size, and shape of lymphocytes found in the sample are examined, helping doctors find the reason for the abnormality. Many factors can influence normal lymphocytes.

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Abnormal lymphocytes may be found by testing fluid from the lymphatic system.
Abnormal lymphocytes may be found by testing fluid from the lymphatic system.

One of the common causes of abnormal lymphocytes is an auto-immune condition, wherein the immune system attacks itself. The cells of the immune system confuse the body’s cells with invading cells and the immune system kills these cells. Lymphocytes are abnormal in this instance because their count is low.

Lymphoma is a possible cause of abnormal lymphocytes.
Lymphoma is a possible cause of abnormal lymphocytes.

Lymphocytes that become reactive are also abnormal. In this instance, these white blood cells are exposed to foreign antigens. Upon exposure, the lymphocytes become abnormally large. Hepatitis C and the Epstein-Barr virus can lead to this change in size.

Viral infections can lead to high lymphocyte counts.
Viral infections can lead to high lymphocyte counts.

Lymphoma generally causes T cells and B cells to become abnormal lymphocytes. Lymphocytes become cancerous in the lymph nodes. Typically, lymphoma results from cancerous B cells but can also occur from abnormal T cells.

Abnormal lymphocytes can be found by testing blood samples.
Abnormal lymphocytes can be found by testing blood samples.

Lymphocytopenia is a type of disorder that directly causes abnormal lymphocytes. More specifically, lymphocytopenia causes a low lymphocyte count. Lymphocytes can be trapped in the organs of the lymphatic system, produced and destroyed, or not produced at all. This disorder is frequently caused by serious conditions, such as an auto-immune condition.

A diagram showing different types of white blood cells, including lymphocytes.
A diagram showing different types of white blood cells, including lymphocytes.

Viral infections and sometimes leukemia can lead to lymphocyte counts being higher than usual. The presence of virus cells triggers the immune system’s responses. As a response to the invasion, more lymphocytes are made to combat and remove the virus cells, preventing these cells from causing damage.

Whooping cough can cause a high lymphocyte count.
Whooping cough can cause a high lymphocyte count.

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Discussion Comments

anon978972

What causes abnormally shaped white blood cells, specifically holes in white blood cell (probably monocyte) walls?

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