A potassium overdose can happen when one has high levels of potassium, also known as hyperkalemia. This occurs when the potassium levels in the blood exceed 6 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L), which might be due to excessive use of potassium supplements or possibly kidney failure. The signs of a potassium overdose are typically serious, such as paralysis, arrhythmia, chest pain, and coma. If one suspects an overdose, medical help or a poison control facility should be contacted immediately. There is no established maximum amount of potassium that is known to be safe, but extremely high doses can be deadly.
Several signs of a potassium overdose affect the muscular system of the body. A person might feel limp or have muscle weakness. It can also cause the limbs to feel heavy or tingly. In severe cases, high potassium levels can cause paralysis as well.
Other symptoms of an overdose distress the heart and circulatory system. Too much potassium typically causes arrhythmia, or irregular heart beat, that is slow and uneven, as well as low blood pressure. One might also experience chest pain and symptoms that are similar to a heart attack.
Additionally, if one has a potassium overdose, he might feel nauseous or feel as though he might faint. Confusion can set in, or one might slip into a coma. In cases of extremely high potassium levels, it may cause death.
It is usually necessary to seek medical help or contact a center for poison control if one suspects a potassium overdose because it can be fatal. Treatment for the condition might include easing the symptoms, taking medication, or dialysis. It is also recommended that one refrain from taking any potassium supplements until given approval from a doctor.
There is generally no established maximum upper limit for how much potassium is safe to ingest, but there are recommended daily amounts. Infants zero to six months old should have about 400 milligrams (mg) daily, and those from seven to 12 months should have 700 mg. Children one year to three years old have a recommended amount of 3,000 mg per day, and from four to eight years, it is 3,800 mg. Those age nine to 13 years can have 4,500 mg daily, and age 14 years and over can have 4,700 mg. Excessively high doses of potassium, around three times the recommended levels, can be deadly.
Potassium is a mineral necessary for the body to have for properly functioning heart, kidneys, muscles, nerves, and digestive system. Supplements are used for preventing a potassium deficiency that can occur with certain diseases, like kidney disease and gastrointestinal disease. The mineral is also naturally present in many foods, such as bananas, avocados, and potatoes.