There are many key events throughout Apache Indian history. These events had profound effects on the destiny of Native Americans in North America and also on the United States and Mexico. Although the Apache are a loose collection of different indigenous peoples, the various Indian nations that compose the group remain one of the largest in the continent. Today, the Apache live primarily in the Southwest United States, but many also reside in many major American cities, including Denver, Kansas City, Los Angeles, Oklahoma City, Phoenix and San Diego.
According to archaeological evidence, the Apache stem from the Athabaskan language family. It is believed that a nomadic collection of the Athabaskans took up residency in the area of present-day Southwestern United States in roughly 1000 AD. Excavations show that the group most likely adopted technology from neighboring Native Americans. Spanish documents from the 16th century identified the culture as possibly having emigrated from the Great Plains due to their use of dogs from the region. This is backed by evidence gathered in Nebraska, Colorado and Kansas.
In 1821, Mexico claimed its independence from Spain. With this key event in Apache Indian history, a long conflict between the two began. Bounties were placed on the heads of leaders, which culminated in the death of the Mimbreno Apache chief Juan Jose Compas in 1837. This prompted a series of raids on Mexican towns and villages. Soon, the United States declared war on Mexico and the Apache joined with the US troops to conquer the land.
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With the success of the US over Mexico in 1846, the Apache signed a treaty with the nation. Despite this agreement, white settlers began to enter the area in large numbers, leading to an event known as the Apache Wars. While many leaders organized resistance against the US settlers and government, none were as well known as Geronimo of the Chiricahua Apache.
After the forced removal of many Native Americans from their traditional lands in the Rio Verde Indian Reserve in 1875, further conflict ensued. The US Army, led by Indian Commissioner L.E. Dudley, forced the populace to walk 180 miles (290 km) to an internment facility in San Carlos. This imprisonment lasted roughly 25 years. According to Apache Indian history, about 200 were ultimately returned to their lands.
The Apache Wars drew to a close on 4 September, 1886. Geronimo and his band of Apache were captured by US troops in Arizona. They were sent to Fort Pickens in Florida and Fort Sill in Oklahoma. Following this event, many of the children were adopted by white Americans, changing the dynamics of Apache Indian history for generations.