Turntables are devices used to play back audio recordings, usually from vinyl record albums. Turntables have been commercially available since the late 19th century and, while these devices have changed considerably over the years, the basic principles remain unchanged. Turntables typically consist of the platter, which holds the record in place; a motor and belt, which turn the platter; the tone arm, which holds the needle in place; and the needle or stylus, which picks up sound from the record. Other turntable parts may include power cords, stereo cables and shock absorbers to keep the record from skipping during playback. Unlike playback devices such as compact disc players and cassette decks, some turntable parts — such as the needles and belts — are designed to be user serviceable when they wear out.
Turntables work by spinning a vinyl disc that has tiny grooves on each side. Audio information is etched into these grooves, and the turntable’s needle traces along the grooves to pick up the sound. The sound is then amplified by either the turntable or a stereo amplifier and can then be heard by listeners. While this process results in a rich and distinctive sound, vinyl records are not durable and the turntable’s needle will gradually wear down the record after many playbacks. This has led most consumers to move to compact disc players or digital audio players.
Over time, some turntable parts will begin to wear out along with the records. The needle is particularly susceptible to wear and damage from being dropped too hard on the record. Needles have been constructed of a variety of materials over the years, from steel to sapphire and diamond. Some record players use expensive diamond-tipped needles that can cost as much as an entire stereo system. Originally, the needle was replaced as it wore out, but modern turntables use needle cartridges that replace the entire tip of the tone arm and help to avoid damage to the needle during installation.
Another one of the turntable parts in some devices that occasionally needs replacing is the belt, which connects the electrical motor to the platter. Much like the belts in a car engine or vacuum cleaner, this part can wear out or become damaged over time. The belt can usually be replaced by lifting the platter and slipping the new belt into position. Some turntables avoid this issue with a direct-drive system that does not employ belts.
Turntable parts have become harder to find as other types of playback devices have grown in popularity. Local stereo shops may have a limited selection of parts but may be able to order harder-to-find items. In some cases, it may be necessary to shop online for a part that is especially rare or no longer in production.