What are the Different Types of Kosher Meats?

Cassie L. Damewood

Kosher meats include all mammals that are ruminants, meaning that they chew cud, or food that is chewed twice to facilitate digestion, and have cloven hooves. This group includes sheep, cows, goats, deer and bison along with less common meat sources, including addax, antelope, gazelle, giraffe, and ibex. Acceptable kosher fowl meat is duck, goose, turkey and chicken. Meat that is prohibited in a kosher diet includes certain types of fowl along with the meat of reptiles, pork and shellfish.

The meat from goats can be kosher.
The meat from goats can be kosher.

To be considered acceptable kosher meats, all of these varieties must be slaughtered in a kosher butcher shop, following concise kosher standards. The slaughtering directions require the poultry and mammals be slain by a quick gash across the neck with a razor-sharp kosher knife. This technique, called shechita, follows Jewish law and ensures the animals’ suffering is minimal.

Jewish cooks typically use rough-grained kosher salt to season meats that have been prepared as mandated by kosher dietary laws.
Jewish cooks typically use rough-grained kosher salt to season meats that have been prepared as mandated by kosher dietary laws.

Following slaughter, the meat requires thorough examination by a trained inspector who searches for any physiological defects that may render it unacceptable. The lungs are the focal point of the exam, as the entire animal will not be accepted if there are any adhesions on its lungs that do not pass the dietary guidelines enforced by the inspector. If it is suspected the lungs have been punctured, the animal will be discarded. Although it is not common for all adhesions to force a rejection by the inspector, some Jewish individuals and communities will only eat meat that is free of all lung abnormalities.

Deer meet is allowed on a kosher diet.
Deer meet is allowed on a kosher diet.

Since consumption of animal blood is forbidden by kosher law, all meats are required to have the blood removed by salting or broiling within 72 hours of being butchered. This eliminates the possibility of congealed blood forming on the meat’s surface. An additional 72 hour stay may be allowed if the meat is immersed in cold water prior to the expiration of the original 72 hour deadline. The process is called koshering and must be completed before the meat is exposed to warm water. If the meat touches warm water beforehand, it cannot be made kosher.

Kosher butchers often offer sausages made from beef, turkey and other meats instead of pork.
Kosher butchers often offer sausages made from beef, turkey and other meats instead of pork.

Kosher meat was once exclusively processed at home or at a local butcher shop. In recent years, the entire process has been delegated to kosher slaughterhouses that are regularly scrutinized by authorities on kosher laws and practices. Due to the specialized training needed for processing and the additional labor involved, kosher meats are normally sold at prices significantly higher than non-kosher meats.

Bison meat, which is kosher.
Bison meat, which is kosher.
Turkey is kosher.
Turkey is kosher.
Cows and other cloven-hoofed, cud-chewing animals are kosher.
Cows and other cloven-hoofed, cud-chewing animals are kosher.
Duck is generally considered kosher.
Duck is generally considered kosher.
Pigs are not considered kosher.
Pigs are not considered kosher.

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Discussion Comments

ZipLine

@burcinc-- You touched on a good point. It's not enough that a meat is kosher, meaning allowed by God. It must also be raised, slaughtered and prepared correctly. For example, an animal fed on non-kosher feed, treated and slaughtered inhumanely is not kosher.

Sometimes kosher meat can also become non-kosher in the kitchen, based on how it's cooked. For example, a beef meal that contains dairy is not kosher.

burcinc

@candyquilt-- I'm not an expert on kosher meat but I think that description only applies to mammals. Birds and fish are obviously not in that category and they are kosher. Basically all typical meats except for pig meat, animals like rabbits and dogs, insects and sea creatures other than fish are not kosher. These are laws established by God and must be followed.

Everything else, as long as it's pure, taken care of, slaughtered and prepared according to Jewish dietary law, are kosher and fair game.

candyquilt

This definition of kosher meats as animals with "cloven hooves" confuses me. How come chicken and fish are kosher then?

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