What are the Different Types of Excavator Parts?

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  • Written By: Lori Kilchermann
  • Edited By: Lauren Fritsky
  • Last Modified Date: 09 December 2019
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Excavator parts consist of many large components. The boom, bucket and tracks are all excavator parts. Many engine components and hydraulic system components are all excavator parts. Due to the nature of the work performed by an excavator, most of the excavator parts are very large and heavy. Made from heavy gauge steel, excavator parts often require a small tractor to move them from place to place within the shop.

While many of the track components of an excavator appear to resemble those of a bulldozer, excavator parts are actually very different. The tracks of a bulldozer are designed to provide forward bite, while excavator parts and tracks are designed solely for moving the excavator into working position. They are not intended to power the excavator through mud and snow. They are used primarily to disperse the weight of the excavator over a greater area than tires would do.

The bucket or scoop used on an excavator is made of very strong steel. This allows the bucket to break through very large rock and hard soil. Some excavators are used to break up large areas of concrete and even paved roadways. When the operator pulls the bucket through the hard material, the strong teeth that are welded onto the bucket chew right into the material and break it up.


Even with the very strong bucket, an excavator would not be able to break up a hard material if it were not for the powerful hydraulic system. A large and powerful engine powers a hydraulic pump that gives the excavator parts their strength. The hydraulic cylinders on the boom act like muscles in a human arm. When the hydraulic cylinders contract, they pull the bucket and the boom just like muscles move an arm and hand. The operator controls the movements by manipulating levers in the cab.

The tracks and undercarriage of the excavator are powered by hydraulics. The engine that powers the hydraulic pumps for the boom and the bucket also powers a separate hydraulic pump that controls the track drive system. Pedals mounted in the cab of the excavator are used to propel the machine both forward and backward. The machine is turned by braking one track while powering the other. The machine pivots around the track that has the brakes applied, thus turning the excavator.

The top half of the machine, or the house, as it is called, is able to pivot in a complete circle. This is possible because the house is attached to the undercarriage by a center pin. This pivoting allows the excavator to reach a wide area of workspace while sitting still.


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