There are several different ways that chickenpox, which is highly contagious, can be transmitted from one person to another. One of the most common methods of chickenpox transmission is physical contact with a person who is infected and actively contagious. The virus can also be spread through the air when a sick person coughs or sneezes, as it is present in saliva. Sometimes children who receive the chickenpox vaccine may develop a mild case of the disease. In rare cases, people with shingles can cause a chickenpox infection in someone who comes in contact with them.
Infection with chickenpox causes patients to develop fluid-filled blisters over much of their skin. Coming into contact with this fluid is a common cause of chickenpox transmission. This may occur if one person touches the actual blisters when they break open, or it may happen if they handle such things as bedding or towels which the infected person has used. People caring for those who are infected should use caution when they are touching the patient or his or her belongings to avoid infection.
Saliva or mucous from the respiratory tract can also be the source of chickenpox transmission. If a patient coughs or sneezes while he or she is actively contagious, the virus can travel through the air and be breathed in by another person, spreading the infection. Sick people who do not adequately wash their hands may also leave the virus on surfaces where it can be picked up by others. This is particularly problematic in places such as schools where children, who are typically the ones that catch chickenpox, are often in close proximity to each other.
One method that can help stop chickenpox transmission is vaccination against the varicella-zoster virus that causes it; in some cases, however, the vaccine can cause a mild chickenpox infection. Children in these cases typically display far fewer and less severe symptoms than in full-blown cases of the disease, and they usually recover much faster. They still are contagious, though, and therefore need to be careful about spreading it further.
After being infected with chickenpox, the varicella-zoster virus usually stays in the body and can become active later in life as shingles. This condition causes a painful rash that can potentially transmit the virus. Though it is uncommon, a person who comes in physical contact with this rash may develop a case of chickenpox.