There are many different ways to categorize types of gemstones. Sometimes they are identified by category. Alternately types of gemstones may be classed by how they are made. Another way to classify gems is by describing them as precious, semi-precious or organic.
When gemstones are identified by category, the following categories may apply:
- Diamonds — considered the most precious stone in the world.
- Corundum — contains gemstones like sapphires and rubies.
- Chrysoberyl — alexandrite and cat’s eyes are two common stones of this type.
- Quartz — amethyst, onyx, citrine, and carnelian are part of this group.
- Beryl — related to quartz and contains stones like emeralds and aquamarines.
Sometimes gemstones are identified by the way they’re made. Categories may be broken into three groups of genuine, created and synthetic. These groups help to determine price and rarity of stones.
Genuine stones are those made by nature and taken out of the earth. This can include stones made by organic means. Pearls and amber, for instance, are genuine stones in this classification.
Created stones refer to lab created copies of genuine stones, and they are real chemical copies. They’re just not obtained through collection or mining. These stones usually don’t cost as much, as genuine stones, and may lack the imperfections of mined stones.
The third group, synthetic stones mean they do not share the same chemical composition or crystallization of genuine or created stones. Synthetic doesn’t refer to one material. Different synthetic materials include crystal, glass, and even plastic. High quality synthetics can still be pretty and ideal for use in certain types of jewelry.
An alternate classification of gemstones is precious, semi-precious and organic. Precious stones include the following: diamonds, rubies, sapphires, emeralds and sometimes pearls (even though these are also organic). Semi-precious stones are many in number and a few popular ones are tourmaline, peridot, garnet, aquamarine, jade, and amethyst. Organic stones are typically pearls, jet, coral, and amber.
There are other ways to evaluate types of gemstones. People may classify them by hardness on the Mohs scale, by color, by rarity, or by popularity. What is really most important in considering different types is how they appeal and how well they will hold up when used in certain ways. For instance, emeralds can be very beautiful, but are somewhat soft. They may not be ideal for rings that are worn constantly, especially if people perform a lot of heavy work while wearing them.