What are Nutrients?

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  • Written By: Sara Schmidt
  • Edited By: Andrew Jones
  • Last Modified Date: 25 May 2020
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Many different chemical compounds make up the food that organisms require to survive. These compounds, including fats, minerals, carbohydrates, vitamins, and water, are called nutrients. Essential nutrients empower organisms to live and grow by stimulating and maintaining body processes.

These compounds have multiple functions within the body. Some help repair and build body tissue. Others produce heat and energy. The body may require very much or very little of a single one, depending on its type.

Macronutrients are compounds that organisms require in large amounts. These include the fats, carbohydrates, water, and proteins that most creatures need for survival. Macronutrients are responsible for everyday functions of the body, such as building and repairing tissue, generating energy and heat, regulating hormones, and maintaining normal brain and nerve function.

Salt, magnesium, calcium, and potassium are also required in large amounts. These are known as macrominerals. These minerals help ensure healthy teeth, bones, and muscle. They also balance the body's fluids.

Micronutrients are compounds that are only needed in small amounts. Micronutrients required by humans include 13 vitamins and 12 minerals. These include Vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12, C, D, E, and K, as well as the minerals potassium, sodium, calcium, phosphorus, chloride, zinc, copper, magnesium, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, and selenium.

Most of these vitamins and minerals can be obtained through a diverse diet. Vitamin K can be produced in the body by microorganisms living in the intestines while vitamin D is synthesized in the skin through sunlight. Vitamin deficiencies can result in a variety of health problems, such as scurvy, rickets, or pellagra. Some of these nutrients can also be harmful if too much of them are consumed.

Another classification these dietary needs are given is the role of being either essential or non-essential. Essential nutrients are those that cannot be made within the human body, and must be obtained through consumption. There are over 40 of these. Non-essential compounds are those that the body can produce on its own, such as cholesterol.

Phytonutrients are those that can only be found in plants. When consumed by humans, some work as antioxidants to protect cells from damage. These can include lycopene, zeaxanthin, beta carotene, lutein, and various flavonoids.

Though the intake of nutrients varies by organism, most animals and protozoa break down food with an internal digestive system. Plants usually absorb them from the soil or the atmosphere using their roots and leaves. Carnivorous plants consume them in a similar fashion to animals; they digest their prey's nutrients first, however, before ingesting them.

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Post 10

Thanks for the information about all the available nutrients. It is really helpful for a diet schedule.

Post 4

I am starting my dieting next month so I wanted to be sure about all the nutrients. But now I have got all the information. Thanks a lot.

Post 2

@cmsmith10: The most important thing to do when dieting is to maintain high levels of vitamins, minerals, and nutrients. That is the only way to healthy dieting. Your body needs 13 different types of vitamins: A,D,E,K,C and there are 8 different B vitamins. You can get all of the vitamins and minerals that your body needs by eating vegetables, grains, dairy products, fresh fruits, and meats. When we diet, sometimes we deprive ourselves of these valuable vitamins. It is very important to use vitamin supplements when dieting. I take a multi-vitamin every day. If you aren’t eating enough dairy products, take a calcium supplement.

Always eat plenty of fruits and vegetables. Our mothers have told us that for years

. It is especially important when dieting. Not only does it provide necessary vitamins and nutrients, it can help ward off heart disease, stroke, and help to control blood pressure.

Use the food pyramid to determine how much you need per day.

Post 1

I am starting a diet next week but I want to make sure to get plenty of vitamins and nutrients. Does anyone know what I could do to make sure that I am getting plenty?

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